"Bishop Mark MacDonald notes similarities between synodical and parliamentary government, wondering whether this model is appropriate for church governance ('How do we act like a church ?' Feb. 2017, p. 5). ... Although both have roots in Athenian democracy, synodical government was developed by the Dominicans in the 13th century; Parliament evolved from Dominican governance four or five centuries later. MacDonald suggests three fundamental features of church governance. First is reading and praying through the gospel. We see this in General Synod in the opening and closing Eucharists, the Daily Office and Bible study". "The second feature is consensus. MacDonald notes that CoGS uses consensus for some decisions. At General Synod, 'no debate' motions are presented without debate". "The third feature is that 'Jesus is present and guides decision-making'. This follows from the prayer, worship and Bible study throughout General Synod". "My observation ... is that the fundamental difficulty with synodical government is not the model, but that the system is often inadequately understood". "No system is perfect, and synodical government can be improved, but it has served the church well for eight centuries -- so well that it was adapted for secular governance in the formation of Parliament".