"Deeply impressed as the Council is with the sense of its duty towards the Church in carrying out the tasks committed to it, it determined that one of [its] first and most pressing undertakings would be a close study of the working of the laws prohibiting the sale of intoxicating liquors in the various provinces of the Dominion which have enacted them. Although these acts have only been in force for a comparatively short time, it was thought that a sufficient period had elapsed to allow of a fairly accurate judgement being arrived at as to the working of Prohibition in Canada in its earlier stages. The present inquiry must, therefore, be considered, and is designed to be, a preliminary one; to be followed, after a suitable period, by another (p. 3). "The inquiry was aimed at establishing one particular fact, and one only, namely, the verdict of the Anglican clergy on the working of the Prohibition laws during the time they have been in force. Therefore, in reading what follows, it should always be kept in mind that the views expressed are solely those of the clergy (p. 4)". "What then is the verdict of the clergy of the Church of England in Canada with regard to the working of Prohibition laws in their initial stages ? We may now answer that question with confidence. `Prohibition laws in the six provinces that have enacted them are working well; but the measure of their success is in exact ratio to the determination of the authorities to enforce them. While Provincial Prohibition is good, Dominion Prohibition would be infinitely preferable. The benefits gained from these laws are almost incalculable, and the very thought of going back to the old system is out of the question. In a word, the Church of England in Canada is solid for Prohibition'. (pp. 23-24)".
Contents divided into sub-sections: Nature of the Inquiry -- Nova Scotia and P.E.I. -- Ontario -- Manitoba -- Saskatchewan -- Alberta -- Summary -- Nova Scotia -- Ontario -- Manitoba -- Saskatchewan -- Alberta -- Will Canada Tolerate Tanlac ? -- Conclusion.
Contents: Publications of the Council for Social Service of the Church of England in Canada -- Reconstruction II / [H. Michell].
"To the discerning there is probably no question which gives rise to greater anxiety than the fear, arising practically to a certainty, that we shall be faced with a serious moral and spiritual reaction [after World War I ends]; in other words we shall be in for a very bad `slump' in high ideals, an expression which makes up in directness what it lacks in elegance (p. 3)".
"We are slowly, but only very slowly, and with infinite difficulty beginning to see that the forward movement of the future in all national and international polity must be preventive and not curative. Disease, poverty, misery, crime, must all be prevented. .... We have built hospitals enough in all conscience, but have we determinedly grappled with the causes that make people sick ? .... We must be seized with that divine discontent that will not let us rest while there are things to be done which cry out for us to set our hands to them, while there are wrongs to be righted that demand our courage to grapple with them, while there are crooked paths to be made straight, and captives to me set free. ..... But at this point we arrive at a very serious consideration. The pace of advancement, the desire for iconoclasm, the fury for reconstruction after the war is going to be very great. There will be a furious battle fought between extreme radicalism on the one side and extreme reaction on the other. To which party will the Church belong ? (pp. 11-13)". "It will be in these ways that the Church will find her great and God-inspired task for the future. She must stand between the combatants, the reactionaries and the radicals, and by the sweet reasonableness of her teaching show the way to a fuller realization of that righteousness which exalteth a nation" (p. 15).
Contents divided into sub-sections: Problems of Reconstruction: 4. Prohibition -- How To Meet Reaction -- Problems of Reconstruction: 5. Education -- Problems of Reconstruction: 6. Control of Disease -- The Legislation of the Future -- The New Outlook.
Bulletin appears to have been written by the Editor "H. Michell" based upon a footnote on page 7 which begins "Perhaps I may be forgiven for citing a personal instance" and which is signed "H.M."
Contents: Publications of the Council for Social Service of the Church of England in Canada -- Substitutes for the Saloon / [H. Michell].
"In October, 1917, the Council for Social Service through its `Bulletin' pronounced a grave warning. `We must not forget,' it said, `that when we pass a prohibition law we have done the easiest thing, the real difficulties lie ahead'. .... But whilst many of us have been preoccupied with the anxieties of the present and the future, not a few, but indeed great and increasing numbers have been considering with equal anxiety the absolute necessity for providing some counter attraction, or perhaps since the saloon no longer exists, some substitute for the now defunct social gathering place which was found formerly in the saloon (p. 3)".
Contents divided into sub-sections: The Working Man's Club -- The Situation Today -- A Programme for the Future -- Utilizing the Abandoned Saloon -- The Report of the Committee of Fifty -- Dancing -- The Moving Picture House -- The Greater Problem.
Bulletin appears to have been written by the Editor "H. Michell" based upon a footnote on page 8 which begins "Some of the pleasanter evenings of my life have been spent in such a club, run by a church in London, England, for cabmen" and which is signed "Editor."
"At the present time, when the problems of the total abolition, or failing that, the vigorous control of the liquor traffic is one of the most pressing, not only in Canada but practically all over the world, a brief study of the famous system of control generally known by the name of the city in which it originated, Gothenburg in Sweden, may be useful in presenting for the consideration of all interested in the question at least one solution, or at least partial solution, of the problem". -- p. 3.
"We have now given, both pro and con the opinions of those who have studied the question closely. In all books on the subject there is remarkable unanimity. While praising many features of the system, the conduct of the public-houses, and general air of respectability that has been thrown around the sale of spirits in Sweden, every observer is forced to admit that all is not well. Really the whole criticism of the system may be reduced to three capital points; -- that it has driven the people to consume beer and wine; that it has not reduced drunkenness; that the system of giving a large share of the profits to the local authorities has the unfortunate effect of making the municipality encourage the sale of spirits". -- p. 13.
Contents: Publications of the Council for Social Service of the Church of England in Canada -- The Gothenburg System.
Contents divided into sub-sections: Historical -- The Gothenburg System -- Regulations for Public Houses -- Results Obtained -- Success or Failure -- A Further Indictment -- The Final Judgment -- Bibliography -- Appendix: The Norwegian Licensing System.
"During the whole course of the long discussion that has accompanied the enforcement of Prohibition in Canada, it has been the aim of the Editorial Board to present to readers of the Bulletin various aspects of the liquor question, judging that a real understanding of the problem involved was, of the most vital importance to the Church as a whole, and that it was the duty of the Council for Social Service to supply what information was possible on the subject. With that end in view no fewer than five of the series of Bulletins have been devoted to various aspects of the problem, and it is thought that a sixth, by way of summary may not be too many, in helping to focus opinion on what are really the pivotal points of the whole question, and perhaps be of service in clarifying the opinions of many on the very vexed problem involved" (p. 2). "We have attempted to give a dispassionate and fair statement of the case. We have outlined the main arguments against Prohibition and have shown the essential fallacies that underlie their reasoning. .... If alcohol is required for sickness it can be obtained through a doctor, the low is not tyrannous, it allows amply for any legitimate use of alcohol. One peculiarly bad feature of the anti-Prohibitionist campaign is the oft-repeated assertion that it is ultimately the aim of the movement to abolish the use of wine from the Holy Communion. This is simply untrue, and does not admit of argument one way or the other" (pp. 15-16). "The Church of England, as had often been remarked, has a peculiar sanity of its own. It may be slow and conservative, in the past it was undoubtedly reactionary, but its opinions on any subject are eminently worthy of the considered attention of everyone. There is no question that the decision of the Church of England in Canada has carried in the past and will still carry in the future great weight on the Prohibition question. The Church will arrive at that conclusion in its own way, uninfluenced by clamour on either side. That each member of the Church may be helped to a wise and judicial decision on the subject has been helped to a wise and judicial decision on the subject has been the sole aim of the Council for Social Service in publishing its series of Bulletins. It leaves the last word to be said by church-people themselves" (p. 16).
Contents divided into sub-sections: The Freedom of the Citizen -- The Difficulties of Enforcement -- The Use and Abuse of Alcohol -- The Use of Drugs -- The Removal of Temptation -- Compulsory Sobriety -- Social Discontent and Prohibition -- A Summary.
"The purpose of the Bulletin is to present to its readers various, and sometimes differing, view-points on social subjects. Its object is, therefore, information and not propaganda. The Editorial Board does not necessarily endorse all, or any, of the opinions expressed in its publications". -- p. 3.
"The major part of the Dominion of Canada has, to a greater or lesser extent, been under a system of Prohibition for the past four years, a period of sufficient duration for the thorough testing of policy. What have been the effects of Prohibition on the Canadian people ?" .... There must be some way of arriving at a satisfactory decision and the only practicable one is by enquiry over a large area. In order to effect this a questionnaire was circulated in the Bulletin of the Council for Social Service during the winter of 1919-20, and urgent requests were addressed to all readers to give their experience by means of answers to a number of questions. This is the second time that the Council has resorted to this method and the results in both cases quite justified the experiment. A large number of answers were received from every province, district and city of the Dominion, presenting a conspectus of the actual state of affairs from coast to coast which could not otherwise be obtained. The results are of absorbing interest and of the greatest value, and there can be no doubt that the report which we make now is an accurate presentation of the situation as we find it to-day in Canada. The method followed is precisely the same as in 1917 and the results are presented in the same manner" (pp. 3-4).
Contents: Prohibition in 1920 -- Social Service Notes and News.
Prohibition in 1920 divided into sub-sections: The Questionnaire -- The Question Propounded -- Nova Scotia -- New Brunswick -- Province of Quebec -- Diocese of Montreal -- Diocese of Quebec -- Province of Ontario -- Diocese of Ottawa -- Diocese of Ontario -- Diocese of Toronto -- Diocese of Huron -- Diocese of Niagara -- Diocese of Algoma -- Diocese of Moosonee -- Diocese of Keewatin -- Manitoba -- Saskatchewan -- Alberta -- British Columbia -- Conclusion.
Social Service Notes and News divided into sub-sections: Annual Meeting of the Council for Social Service -- Diocesan Councils for Social Service -- A Church House and a Welcome for Every College Student -- The Brotherhood of St. Andrew and the Council for Social Service -- New Field Secretary of the Girls' Friendly Society -- The Lambeth Conference Resolutions on Social and Industrial Questions -- The Growing Tide of Immigration -- Penitentiary Reform -- The Lambeth Resolution on Rescue Work.
"The purpose of the Bulletin is to present to its readers various, and sometimes differing, view-points on social subjects. Its object is, therefore, information and not propaganda. The Editorial Board does not necessarily endorse all, or any, of the opinions expressed in its publications". -- p. 2.
"The terms of reference to the committee appointed to inquire into the working of Prohibition in Canada cover a large field, and the report presented in the last number of the Bulletin did not give a complete outline of all the investigations carried on by the committee. The exact questions submitted for the study of the Council for Social Service at the general meeting in September, 1919, were as follows: -- 1. The extent to which non-enforcement of Prohibition prevails. 2. The evils arising from the use of: -- (a) The products of illegal stills. (b) Substitutes for liquor. 3. The reported increase of the drug habit. 4. The working of the present laws regarding the system of selling on doctor's prescriptions. The report already presented may be considered to have covered the first of these, and nothing further need be added on that point, and we may pass to the second [et al]" (p. 2).
Contents: Prohibition in Canada, 1920. II -- Social Service Notes and News.
Prohibition in Canada, 1920 divided into sub-sections: Illegal Stills and Substitutes -- Substitutes for Alcohol -- Drugs -- Doctor's Prescriptions -- Bone Dry or Not -- Conclusion.
Social Service Notes and News divided into sub-sections: The King on the Social Work of the Church -- The Personal Touch: Social Service Work Appreciated -- The S.P.C.K. and the Port Chaplaincy -- A Letter of Welcome to the New-Comer -- Welcome and Welfare Department: Forms of Commendation Appreciated -- The Master's Teaching on Divorce -- Women Added to Calgary Diocesan Council for Social Service -- Religion and Politics -- Schools for Mothers -- The Unchangeable Christian Standard -- Law-Breakers as Anarchists -- The Christian Business Man's Ideal -- Social Service in Japan.
Contents: [List of] Publications of the Council for Social Service of the Church of England in Canada -- The Carlisle Experiment.
"The measures taken in England and Scotland during the war to combat the very serous increase in drunkenness brought about by the abnormal conditions created by the vast industrial effort to supply munitions are of such interest and importance, even though conditions in Canada may be not precisely the same, that it will be well to examine them somewhat closely" (p. 3). "It is not, however, with this general side of the question that we shall deal now, but rather with the particular and localised experiment of state purchase and control which was tried at Carlisle" (p. 4). "We have now, perhaps, taken this discussion of the merits and demerits of state purchase and control [of alcohol] far enough to allow of a fairly clear idea of the problem being formed. It has been the aim of the Editorial Board of the Council for Social Service to place before church people in Canada successive phases of the liquor problem, and different expedients and experiments for its solution. The Gothenburg system and the Carlisle experiment are, of course, essentially the same in theory, although differing slightly in practice. Both aim at improving the conditions under which intoxicants are retailed, and succeed admirably in their object. The Gothenburg system is confined wholly to the single item of spirits, and for that reason, as abundant evidence shows, it fails to check drunkenness. The English experiment imposes special restrictions upon spirits (the spiritless week-end) but also controls the sale of beer. For that reason it is probable it will have better results than the other. The future developments in State control in Great Britain will be watched with much interest" (p. 14).
"The menace of alcohol is much in the thoughts of the Canadian people today. There is reason that it should be. The main article in this Bulletin, while written by the General Secretary of this Department, carries only the same authority as the articles in all our other Bulletins, written by various people. It is a personal statement. Except where it may quote Resolutions of the Council or of General Synod, it is not in any way a pronouncement by the Church. The principal object of the writer is to point to the rising tide of drinking in this country, which figures and general experience indicate, and to underscore the opinion that Christian example and influence are needed to stem it. The article endeavours to point out ways in which that influence may be exerted." -- [Foreword].
Contents: [Foreword] / W.W. Judd -- Alcoholic Beverages and Christian Responsibility / W.W. Judd -- Addenda -- Pertinent Books in The Council's Library.
"A consideration of the causes which lead to the use and abuse of alcohol reveal at the very outset three salient facts, namely, that a taste for alcohol is an acquired one, that men drink from well known and specified reasons and for certain obvious purposes, and finally that the drink problem is fundamentally an economic one. Unfortunately, and the fact is one to be heartily deplored, the `temperance' or prohibitions movement has become greatly obscured by a vast number of extraneous and irrelevant side issues, and anyone who attempts to study the question calmly and judiciously finds great difficulty in arriving at the fundamental axioms which underlie it. This this should be so is perhaps inevitable since no great question of moral reform is wholly simple or devoid of complexities. All manner of secondary prejudices, religious, moral, economic and often purely fictitious in their content, obscure the view of the investigator and leave him almost in despair of ever straightening out the tangle. This is particularly true of the prohibition question, and the greatest care must be taken to steer a clear course, between conflicting currents so as to arrive at definite and satisfactory conclusions (p. 2)."
Contents divided into sub-sections: Alcohol and Acquired Taste -- The Use of Alcohol -- The Moderate Drinker -- Why Men Drink -- The Drink Problem and Economic One -- Substitutes for the Saloon -- A Canadian Example -- The Opportunity for Social Service -- Conclusions Arrived At -- Conclusion -- Notes on the Gothenburg System -- Bibliography.
Originally published in German as: AIDS : Eine Krankheit verander die Welt : Daten, Fakten, Hintergrunde. Frankfurt: Verlag Otto Lembeck, 2003.
Includes bibliography: p. 110-118.
This book "is an offering to churches and the world -- a significant and vital addition to the continuum of knowledge -- that will greatly assist churches to be effective and efficient in the struggle to overcome HIV/AIDS. It is a compilation of historical, scientific and statistical material aimed at providing churches and their partners with a better understanding of the dynamics of HIV/AIDS as well as current information to aid in collaborative efforts at answering the challenge of the disease. .... On a practical level this response is deliberately multi-faceted and interactive, encouraging churches and Christian service organizations to build and support coalitions dedicated to overcoming this epidemic". -- Preface.
Contents: Preface / Samuel Kobia, General Secretary, World Council of Churches -- Introduction / Sonja Weinreich and Christoph Benn --.Natural history and HIV transmission -- Global, regional and country-specific spread of HIV/AIDS -- Vulnerable population groups -- Gender equity -- Children -- Young people -- Socio-economic context -- Stigma and discrimination --Human rights -- People living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) -- Prevention -- Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) -- Care -- Antiretroviral therapy -- HIV/AIDS on the international agenda -- Advocacy and lobbying -- Culture and tradition -- Churches, theology and HIV/AIDS -- Mainstreaming HIV/AIDS -- Literature.