"From the 1870s, many middle class Canadian women, inspired by the demands of their evangelical faith, and the challenges of urbanization, materialism and intemperance, organized societies such as the Women's Christian Temperance Union. Typically, members of groups such as the WCTU had several objectives. First, they attested to their faith by bringing the spiritually fallen to Christ. Second, a logical outcome of the first, they sought to reform those elements in society which encouraged irresponsibility and dissolution. Third, they supported one another in spiritual growth and through personal travail in what today we would term a women's network. Groups such as the WCTU, and its sub-group for single women, the YWCTU [Young Women's Christian Temperance Union], provided spiritual succour for the needy through networking but also attempted to place themselves in positions of community leadership by defining acceptable standards of piety. .... In Ottawa the YWCTU and the Young Women's Christian Association [YWCA] also trying to reach the poor through Christian stewardship, were both led by the exceptional Bertha Wright" (p. 4-5). "This paper will concentrate primarily on her efforts to promote childhood evangelical and temperance education, public evangelization and maternal care through the YWCTU" (p. 6). "Through their extensive work with working-class children, the YWCTU developed some highly effective strategies for teaching a potentially hostile population" (p. 7-8). "A second area in which Bertha Wright, through the YWCTU, made a great impact on the community was in evangelical proselytizing" (p. 9). A series of attempts by the YWCTU to organize temperance meetings in Hull resulted in riots and much public and editorial debate. "The mission in Hull, an example of 'primitive methods of evangelism' to 'compel ... by earthly power' speaks eloquently to the courage, energy, blind conviction and unarticulated racism of the women of the YWCTU. It permits a close examination of the intersections of developing middle-class values, nineteenth-century racism, evangelical religiosity and gender" (p. 13). "As in the case of the YWCA a few years later, individual rescue work among confirmed sinners was seen to have a more limited return in the war against sinful behaviours than preventative social measures. The most ambitious project undertaken by the Ottawa YWCTU headed by Bertha Wright clearly demonstrates this gradual change in focus towards social reform, and away from moral rescue work, as the means to effect lasting lifestyle changes. The Home for Friendless Women was a 'mission to the masses', but with a difference" (p. 13). "Bertha Wright left behind an impressive legacy and, more important, symbolized an evangelical feminism that profoundly affected pre-war Canada. An accomplished and serious woman, Bertha exerted her leadership in social activism motivated by unwavering evangelical faith. Labouring with the Young Women's Christian Temperance Union in Ottawa, and across the province of Ontario, evangelical women like her were empowered by 'the transforming power of divine grace for ourselves and all for whom we work'" (p. 18).
Contents: [List of] Publications of the Council for Social Service of the Church of England in Canada -- The Carlisle Experiment.
"The measures taken in England and Scotland during the war to combat the very serous increase in drunkenness brought about by the abnormal conditions created by the vast industrial effort to supply munitions are of such interest and importance, even though conditions in Canada may be not precisely the same, that it will be well to examine them somewhat closely" (p. 3). "It is not, however, with this general side of the question that we shall deal now, but rather with the particular and localised experiment of state purchase and control which was tried at Carlisle" (p. 4). "We have now, perhaps, taken this discussion of the merits and demerits of state purchase and control [of alcohol] far enough to allow of a fairly clear idea of the problem being formed. It has been the aim of the Editorial Board of the Council for Social Service to place before church people in Canada successive phases of the liquor problem, and different expedients and experiments for its solution. The Gothenburg system and the Carlisle experiment are, of course, essentially the same in theory, although differing slightly in practice. Both aim at improving the conditions under which intoxicants are retailed, and succeed admirably in their object. The Gothenburg system is confined wholly to the single item of spirits, and for that reason, as abundant evidence shows, it fails to check drunkenness. The English experiment imposes special restrictions upon spirits (the spiritless week-end) but also controls the sale of beer. For that reason it is probable it will have better results than the other. The future developments in State control in Great Britain will be watched with much interest" (p. 14).
"The menace of alcohol is much in the thoughts of the Canadian people today. There is reason that it should be. The main article in this Bulletin, while written by the General Secretary of this Department, carries only the same authority as the articles in all our other Bulletins, written by various people. It is a personal statement. Except where it may quote Resolutions of the Council or of General Synod, it is not in any way a pronouncement by the Church. The principal object of the writer is to point to the rising tide of drinking in this country, which figures and general experience indicate, and to underscore the opinion that Christian example and influence are needed to stem it. The article endeavours to point out ways in which that influence may be exerted." -- [Foreword].
Contents: [Foreword] / W.W. Judd -- Alcoholic Beverages and Christian Responsibility / W.W. Judd -- Addenda -- Pertinent Books in The Council's Library.
"During the whole course of the long discussion that has accompanied the enforcement of Prohibition in Canada, it has been the aim of the Editorial Board to present to readers of the Bulletin various aspects of the liquor question, judging that a real understanding of the problem involved was, of the most vital importance to the Church as a whole, and that it was the duty of the Council for Social Service to supply what information was possible on the subject. With that end in view no fewer than five of the series of Bulletins have been devoted to various aspects of the problem, and it is thought that a sixth, by way of summary may not be too many, in helping to focus opinion on what are really the pivotal points of the whole question, and perhaps be of service in clarifying the opinions of many on the very vexed problem involved" (p. 2). "We have attempted to give a dispassionate and fair statement of the case. We have outlined the main arguments against Prohibition and have shown the essential fallacies that underlie their reasoning. .... If alcohol is required for sickness it can be obtained through a doctor, the low is not tyrannous, it allows amply for any legitimate use of alcohol. One peculiarly bad feature of the anti-Prohibitionist campaign is the oft-repeated assertion that it is ultimately the aim of the movement to abolish the use of wine from the Holy Communion. This is simply untrue, and does not admit of argument one way or the other" (pp. 15-16). "The Church of England, as had often been remarked, has a peculiar sanity of its own. It may be slow and conservative, in the past it was undoubtedly reactionary, but its opinions on any subject are eminently worthy of the considered attention of everyone. There is no question that the decision of the Church of England in Canada has carried in the past and will still carry in the future great weight on the Prohibition question. The Church will arrive at that conclusion in its own way, uninfluenced by clamour on either side. That each member of the Church may be helped to a wise and judicial decision on the subject has been helped to a wise and judicial decision on the subject has been the sole aim of the Council for Social Service in publishing its series of Bulletins. It leaves the last word to be said by church-people themselves" (p. 16).
Contents divided into sub-sections: The Freedom of the Citizen -- The Difficulties of Enforcement -- The Use and Abuse of Alcohol -- The Use of Drugs -- The Removal of Temptation -- Compulsory Sobriety -- Social Discontent and Prohibition -- A Summary.
"The purpose of the Bulletin is to present to its readers various, and sometimes differing, view-points on social subjects. Its object is, therefore, information and not propaganda. The Editorial Board does not necessarily endorse all, or any, of the opinions expressed in its publications". -- p. 3.
"The major part of the Dominion of Canada has, to a greater or lesser extent, been under a system of Prohibition for the past four years, a period of sufficient duration for the thorough testing of policy. What have been the effects of Prohibition on the Canadian people ?" .... There must be some way of arriving at a satisfactory decision and the only practicable one is by enquiry over a large area. In order to effect this a questionnaire was circulated in the Bulletin of the Council for Social Service during the winter of 1919-20, and urgent requests were addressed to all readers to give their experience by means of answers to a number of questions. This is the second time that the Council has resorted to this method and the results in both cases quite justified the experiment. A large number of answers were received from every province, district and city of the Dominion, presenting a conspectus of the actual state of affairs from coast to coast which could not otherwise be obtained. The results are of absorbing interest and of the greatest value, and there can be no doubt that the report which we make now is an accurate presentation of the situation as we find it to-day in Canada. The method followed is precisely the same as in 1917 and the results are presented in the same manner" (pp. 3-4).
Contents: Prohibition in 1920 -- Social Service Notes and News.
Prohibition in 1920 divided into sub-sections: The Questionnaire -- The Question Propounded -- Nova Scotia -- New Brunswick -- Province of Quebec -- Diocese of Montreal -- Diocese of Quebec -- Province of Ontario -- Diocese of Ottawa -- Diocese of Ontario -- Diocese of Toronto -- Diocese of Huron -- Diocese of Niagara -- Diocese of Algoma -- Diocese of Moosonee -- Diocese of Keewatin -- Manitoba -- Saskatchewan -- Alberta -- British Columbia -- Conclusion.
Social Service Notes and News divided into sub-sections: Annual Meeting of the Council for Social Service -- Diocesan Councils for Social Service -- A Church House and a Welcome for Every College Student -- The Brotherhood of St. Andrew and the Council for Social Service -- New Field Secretary of the Girls' Friendly Society -- The Lambeth Conference Resolutions on Social and Industrial Questions -- The Growing Tide of Immigration -- Penitentiary Reform -- The Lambeth Resolution on Rescue Work.
"The purpose of the Bulletin is to present to its readers various, and sometimes differing, view-points on social subjects. Its object is, therefore, information and not propaganda. The Editorial Board does not necessarily endorse all, or any, of the opinions expressed in its publications". -- p. 2.
"The terms of reference to the committee appointed to inquire into the working of Prohibition in Canada cover a large field, and the report presented in the last number of the Bulletin did not give a complete outline of all the investigations carried on by the committee. The exact questions submitted for the study of the Council for Social Service at the general meeting in September, 1919, were as follows: -- 1. The extent to which non-enforcement of Prohibition prevails. 2. The evils arising from the use of: -- (a) The products of illegal stills. (b) Substitutes for liquor. 3. The reported increase of the drug habit. 4. The working of the present laws regarding the system of selling on doctor's prescriptions. The report already presented may be considered to have covered the first of these, and nothing further need be added on that point, and we may pass to the second [et al]" (p. 2).
Contents: Prohibition in Canada, 1920. II -- Social Service Notes and News.
Prohibition in Canada, 1920 divided into sub-sections: Illegal Stills and Substitutes -- Substitutes for Alcohol -- Drugs -- Doctor's Prescriptions -- Bone Dry or Not -- Conclusion.
Social Service Notes and News divided into sub-sections: The King on the Social Work of the Church -- The Personal Touch: Social Service Work Appreciated -- The S.P.C.K. and the Port Chaplaincy -- A Letter of Welcome to the New-Comer -- Welcome and Welfare Department: Forms of Commendation Appreciated -- The Master's Teaching on Divorce -- Women Added to Calgary Diocesan Council for Social Service -- Religion and Politics -- Schools for Mothers -- The Unchangeable Christian Standard -- Law-Breakers as Anarchists -- The Christian Business Man's Ideal -- Social Service in Japan.
"Deeply impressed as the Council is with the sense of its duty towards the Church in carrying out the tasks committed to it, it determined that one of [its] first and most pressing undertakings would be a close study of the working of the laws prohibiting the sale of intoxicating liquors in the various provinces of the Dominion which have enacted them. Although these acts have only been in force for a comparatively short time, it was thought that a sufficient period had elapsed to allow of a fairly accurate judgement being arrived at as to the working of Prohibition in Canada in its earlier stages. The present inquiry must, therefore, be considered, and is designed to be, a preliminary one; to be followed, after a suitable period, by another (p. 3). "The inquiry was aimed at establishing one particular fact, and one only, namely, the verdict of the Anglican clergy on the working of the Prohibition laws during the time they have been in force. Therefore, in reading what follows, it should always be kept in mind that the views expressed are solely those of the clergy (p. 4)". "What then is the verdict of the clergy of the Church of England in Canada with regard to the working of Prohibition laws in their initial stages ? We may now answer that question with confidence. `Prohibition laws in the six provinces that have enacted them are working well; but the measure of their success is in exact ratio to the determination of the authorities to enforce them. While Provincial Prohibition is good, Dominion Prohibition would be infinitely preferable. The benefits gained from these laws are almost incalculable, and the very thought of going back to the old system is out of the question. In a word, the Church of England in Canada is solid for Prohibition'. (pp. 23-24)".
Contents divided into sub-sections: Nature of the Inquiry -- Nova Scotia and P.E.I. -- Ontario -- Manitoba -- Saskatchewan -- Alberta -- Summary -- Nova Scotia -- Ontario -- Manitoba -- Saskatchewan -- Alberta -- Will Canada Tolerate Tanlac ? -- Conclusion.
"This pamphlet was prepared by a committee of laymen and clergy and attempts to raise questions and begin discussion about the use of alcoholic beverages, in the hope that it may be a guide to Anglicans in their behaviour in these matters". -- p. .
Contents: Alcohol ? -- [Text in the form of 20 questions e.g. "What about the use of wine in the Holy Communion ?"] -- Summary -- Resource List [Books, Pamphlets, Films, Organizations].