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"A Gallant Little Band" : Bertha Wright and the Late Nineteenth Century Evangelical Women

http://archives.anglican.ca/en/permalink/article36636
Author
Cook, Sharon A. (Sharon Anne), 1947-
Record Type
Journal Article
Journal
Journal of the Canadian Church Historical Society
Date
1995 April
Author
Cook, Sharon A. (Sharon Anne), 1947-
Record Type
Journal Article
Journal
Journal of the Canadian Church Historical Society
Date
1995 April
Volume
37
Issue
1
Page
[3]-21
Notes
"From the 1870s, many middle class Canadian women, inspired by the demands of their evangelical faith, and the challenges of urbanization, materialism and intemperance, organized societies such as the Women's Christian Temperance Union. Typically, members of groups such as the WCTU had several objectives. First, they attested to their faith by bringing the spiritually fallen to Christ. Second, a logical outcome of the first, they sought to reform those elements in society which encouraged irresponsibility and dissolution. Third, they supported one another in spiritual growth and through personal travail in what today we would term a women's network. Groups such as the WCTU, and its sub-group for single women, the YWCTU [Young Women's Christian Temperance Union], provided spiritual succour for the needy through networking but also attempted to place themselves in positions of community leadership by defining acceptable standards of piety. .... In Ottawa the YWCTU and the Young Women's Christian Association [YWCA] also trying to reach the poor through Christian stewardship, were both led by the exceptional Bertha Wright" (p. 4-5). "This paper will concentrate primarily on her efforts to promote childhood evangelical and temperance education, public evangelization and maternal care through the YWCTU" (p. 6). "Through their extensive work with working-class children, the YWCTU developed some highly effective strategies for teaching a potentially hostile population" (p. 7-8). "A second area in which Bertha Wright, through the YWCTU, made a great impact on the community was in evangelical proselytizing" (p. 9). A series of attempts by the YWCTU to organize temperance meetings in Hull resulted in riots and much public and editorial debate. "The mission in Hull, an example of 'primitive methods of evangelism' to 'compel ... by earthly power' speaks eloquently to the courage, energy, blind conviction and unarticulated racism of the women of the YWCTU. It permits a close examination of the intersections of developing middle-class values, nineteenth-century racism, evangelical religiosity and gender" (p. 13). "As in the case of the YWCA a few years later, individual rescue work among confirmed sinners was seen to have a more limited return in the war against sinful behaviours than preventative social measures. The most ambitious project undertaken by the Ottawa YWCTU headed by Bertha Wright clearly demonstrates this gradual change in focus towards social reform, and away from moral rescue work, as the means to effect lasting lifestyle changes. The Home for Friendless Women was a 'mission to the masses', but with a difference" (p. 13). "Bertha Wright left behind an impressive legacy and, more important, symbolized an evangelical feminism that profoundly affected pre-war Canada. An accomplished and serious woman, Bertha exerted her leadership in social activism motivated by unwavering evangelical faith. Labouring with the Young Women's Christian Temperance Union in Ottawa, and across the province of Ontario, evangelical women like her were empowered by 'the transforming power of divine grace for ourselves and all for whom we work'" (p. 18).
Subjects
Carr-Harris, Bertha Hannah Wright, 1863-1949
Evangelicalism - Anglican Church of Canada - History
Evangelicalism - Canada - History
Evangelicalism - Canada - 19th century
Evangelistic work - Canada
Canada - Social conditions - 1867-1918
Women's Christian Temperance Union
Young Women's Christian Temperance Union
Temperance - Canada
Temperance - Religious aspects - Anglican Church of Canada
Church and social problems - Canada - History
Church and social problems - Anglican Church of Canada - History
Women church workers - Canada - History
Less detail

Fame Does Not Necessarily Bring Immortality: The Reverend J.B. Silcox, a True Social Gospeller (1847-1933)

http://archives.anglican.ca/en/permalink/article37442
Author
Méthot, Mélanie, 1970-
Record Type
Journal Article
Journal
Journal of the Canadian Church Historical Society
Date
2003 Spring
Author
Méthot, Mélanie, 1970-
Record Type
Journal Article
Journal
Journal of the Canadian Church Historical Society
Date
2003 Spring
Volume
45
Issue
1
Page
[31]-64
Notes
"It is strange that the Reverend J.B. Silcox [an ordained Congregational minister], a typical social gospeller, has not attracted the attention of historians, especially since he was so popular in his time. Silcox preached a theology of individual regeneration. Ideally, he hoped to reach the soul of every citizen with his message. He had no elaborate plan, but believed that the kingdom of God on earth could be achieved through effective preaching of the gospel, and so, with charisma, vitality, and sincerity, he dedicated his life to delivering a Christian message of social reform. That Silcox filled his church every Sunday indicates that he was certainly popular in his day, and that he had a following. His influence is confirmed by the fact that his ideas were published in pamphlets and newspapers with readers even commenting on them. Few dared to criticise the Silcox's 'higher' purpose of purifying hearts. If he was unsuccessful at defeating the 'evil' forces of the industrial order, Silcox was successful in raising public consciousness to what he considered the ills of society" (p. [31]. "Silcox did not work to establish social missions, settlement houses or workers' unions, but laboured to alter people's attitude. His idea of direct assistance was to bring Christ's message to people's heart. The industrial system which fostered greed, competition and materialism caused the ills of urban life. Through the gospel, however, citizens could learn of Christian principles, and be metamorphosed to then learn to live according to the Golden Rule. Since there is nothing original in his discourse, nothing to distinguish his message from that of other social gospellers of the time, one has to conclude that his popularity as the greatest social reformer of his day was due to the messenger rather than to the message (p. 64).
Article divided into sections: Why Should We Study Silcox ? -- A Revered Entertainer -- The "Industrial System" is Flawed -- Sabbath Observance, Temperance and Social Purity -- Silcox's View of Women -- Silcox's Master Plan: The Gospel -- Silcox's Impact -- Conclusion. Includes one illustration.
Subjects
Silcox, J.B. (John B.), 1847-1933
Church and social problems - Canada - History
Social justice - Canada - History
Social justice - Religious aspects - Christianity
Preaching - Congregational churches
Church and industry - Canada
Church and labor - Canada
Labor - Canada
Labor - Religious aspects - Christianity
Sunday legislation - Canada
Sunday legislation - Religious aspects - Congregational churches
Temperance - Canada
Temperance - Religious aspects - Congregational churches
Prostitution - Canada
Prostitution - Religious aspects - Congregational churches
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The Gothenburg System

http://archives.anglican.ca/en/permalink/article471
Record Type
Journal Article
Journal
Bulletin [Council for Social Service]
Date
1919 June
Record Type
Journal Article
Journal
Bulletin [Council for Social Service]
Date
1919 June
Issue
25
Page
1-16
Notes
"At the present time, when the problems of the total abolition, or failing that, the vigorous control of the liquor traffic is one of the most pressing, not only in Canada but practically all over the world, a brief study of the famous system of control generally known by the name of the city in which it originated, Gothenburg in Sweden, may be useful in presenting for the consideration of all interested in the question at least one solution, or at least partial solution, of the problem". -- p. 3.
"We have now given, both pro and con the opinions of those who have studied the question closely. In all books on the subject there is remarkable unanimity. While praising many features of the system, the conduct of the public-houses, and general air of respectability that has been thrown around the sale of spirits in Sweden, every observer is forced to admit that all is not well. Really the whole criticism of the system may be reduced to three capital points; -- that it has driven the people to consume beer and wine; that it has not reduced drunkenness; that the system of giving a large share of the profits to the local authorities has the unfortunate effect of making the municipality encourage the sale of spirits". -- p. 13.
Contents: Publications of the Council for Social Service of the Church of England in Canada -- The Gothenburg System.
Contents divided into sub-sections: Historical -- The Gothenburg System -- Regulations for Public Houses -- Results Obtained -- Success or Failure -- A Further Indictment -- The Final Judgment -- Bibliography -- Appendix: The Norwegian Licensing System.
Colophon: Hanson, Crozier and Edgar, Kingston.
Subjects
Gothenburg system
Liquor laws - Sweden
Temperance - Canada
Alcohol - Religious aspects - Anglican Church of Canada
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John Dougall (1808-1886): Portrait of an Early Social Reformer and Evangelical Witness in Canada

http://archives.anglican.ca/en/permalink/article37452
Author
Vander Hoef, Lorraine
Record Type
Journal Article
Journal
Journal of the Canadian Church Historical Society
Date
2001 Fall
Author
Vander Hoef, Lorraine
Record Type
Journal Article
Journal
Journal of the Canadian Church Historical Society
Date
2001 Fall
Volume
43
Issue
2
Page
[115]-145
Notes
"John Dougall is probably best known within Canadian historiography as the militant Protestant journalist who founded a successful periodical business in the nineteenth century Montreal publishing world. In a period in which most journal ran no more than three years, Dougall's primary publication, the 'Montreal Witness', proved a notable exception. Edited by three generations of Dougalls, the newspaper spanned ten decades of publication. Although Dougall has received most attention in various histories of the nineteenth-century periodical industry, it is difficult to account for the work and policies of this editor without regard for his religious beliefs. Only loosely identified with the political reform movement in Canada in the 1820s, John Dougall is more clearly understood within the complex milieu of the evangelical reform movement at mid-century. His optimistic views of the burgeoning nineteenth-century press and its potential to influence society at large, and his desire to provide inexpensive religious materials for the moral improvement of all Canadians, however, go beyond the evangelical concerns for individual piety, and in them may be found seeds of of the later social reform movement in this country. In particular, John Dougall wrote and devoted his journals to issues of religious freedom, political independence, and principles of moral and social reform, such as temperance, Sunday observance, and the abolition of slavery in the United States. .... the following biographical sketch and appended bibliography is an attempt to draw back the curtain on one of Canada's temperance workers and evangelical reformers. It is hoped that the growing field of Canadian evangelical historiography will do more to place John Dougall and other evangelicals of the mid-nineteenth century at the roots of the later social gospel movement" (p. [115]-116).
Article includes "Bibliography of Sources on John Dougall", pages 134-145. Bibliography divided into sections: Primary Sources: Published Works -- Anonymous Reflections and Autobiographical Writings -- Committee Reports -- Manuscript Collections -- Periodicals and Newspapers edited and published by John Dougall -- Periodicals edited and published by J. Dougall under the editorship of John Redpath Dougall -- Periodicals of Societies in which John Dougall Had Membership -- Secondary Sources: Databases -- Biographical Selections -- Additional Biographical and Historical Works with Relevant Source Material -- Periodical Histories -- Church Histories.
Article divided into sections: Changing the Verities of Mission: From Commerce to Christianity -- The Embodiment of Mission: R.V. Bingham -- Lugard and Indirect Rule: A "Theologian" and his Theology" -- Philosophical Shifts within the SIM.
Author is "currently a doctoral student at the University of Toronto's Centre for the Study of Religion .... Her article draws on the biographical research for her doctoral dissertation on John Dougall's daughter: 'The Theological New Woman: Religious Thought in the Writings of Lily Dougal'. Her thesis will explore Lily Dougall's central theological conceptions, as well as her connection with B.H. Streeter and other Broad church theologians of the period" (p. 170).
Subjects
Dougall, John, 1808-1886
Dougall, John Redpath, 1841-1934
Dougall, Lily, 1858-1923
Religious newspapers and periodicals - Canada - History
Evangelicals - Canada - 19th century
Church and social problems - Canada - History - 19th century
Temperance - Canada
Temperance - Religious aspects - Congregational churches
Temperance - Religious aspects - Protestant Evangelical churches
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Prohibition : A Summary

http://archives.anglican.ca/en/permalink/article474
Record Type
Journal Article
Journal
Bulletin [Council for Social Service]
Date
1919 September
Record Type
Journal Article
Journal
Bulletin [Council for Social Service]
Date
1919 September
Issue
28
Page
1-16 p.
Notes
"During the whole course of the long discussion that has accompanied the enforcement of Prohibition in Canada, it has been the aim of the Editorial Board to present to readers of the Bulletin various aspects of the liquor question, judging that a real understanding of the problem involved was, of the most vital importance to the Church as a whole, and that it was the duty of the Council for Social Service to supply what information was possible on the subject. With that end in view no fewer than five of the series of Bulletins have been devoted to various aspects of the problem, and it is thought that a sixth, by way of summary may not be too many, in helping to focus opinion on what are really the pivotal points of the whole question, and perhaps be of service in clarifying the opinions of many on the very vexed problem involved" (p. 2). "We have attempted to give a dispassionate and fair statement of the case. We have outlined the main arguments against Prohibition and have shown the essential fallacies that underlie their reasoning. .... If alcohol is required for sickness it can be obtained through a doctor, the low is not tyrannous, it allows amply for any legitimate use of alcohol. One peculiarly bad feature of the anti-Prohibitionist campaign is the oft-repeated assertion that it is ultimately the aim of the movement to abolish the use of wine from the Holy Communion. This is simply untrue, and does not admit of argument one way or the other" (pp. 15-16). "The Church of England, as had often been remarked, has a peculiar sanity of its own. It may be slow and conservative, in the past it was undoubtedly reactionary, but its opinions on any subject are eminently worthy of the considered attention of everyone. There is no question that the decision of the Church of England in Canada has carried in the past and will still carry in the future great weight on the Prohibition question. The Church will arrive at that conclusion in its own way, uninfluenced by clamour on either side. That each member of the Church may be helped to a wise and judicial decision on the subject has been helped to a wise and judicial decision on the subject has been the sole aim of the Council for Social Service in publishing its series of Bulletins. It leaves the last word to be said by church-people themselves" (p. 16).
Contents divided into sub-sections: The Freedom of the Citizen -- The Difficulties of Enforcement -- The Use and Abuse of Alcohol -- The Use of Drugs -- The Removal of Temptation -- Compulsory Sobriety -- Social Discontent and Prohibition -- A Summary.
Subjects
Prohibition - Canada
Prohibition - Religious aspects - Anglican Church of Canada
Alcohol - Religious aspects - Anglican Church of Canada
Alcoholism - Religious aspects - Anglican Church of Canada
Temperance - Canada
Temperance - Religious aspects - Anglican Church of Canada
Lord's Supper - Wine
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Prohibition in Canada : 2

http://archives.anglican.ca/en/permalink/article33056
Record Type
Journal Article
Journal
Bulletin [Council for Social Service]
Date
1917 October
Record Type
Journal Article
Journal
Bulletin [Council for Social Service]
Date
1917 October
Issue
5
Page
1-16 p.
Notes
"A consideration of the causes which lead to the use and abuse of alcohol reveal at the very outset three salient facts, namely, that a taste for alcohol is an acquired one, that men drink from well known and specified reasons and for certain obvious purposes, and finally that the drink problem is fundamentally an economic one. Unfortunately, and the fact is one to be heartily deplored, the `temperance' or prohibitions movement has become greatly obscured by a vast number of extraneous and irrelevant side issues, and anyone who attempts to study the question calmly and judiciously finds great difficulty in arriving at the fundamental axioms which underlie it. This this should be so is perhaps inevitable since no great question of moral reform is wholly simple or devoid of complexities. All manner of secondary prejudices, religious, moral, economic and often purely fictitious in their content, obscure the view of the investigator and leave him almost in despair of ever straightening out the tangle. This is particularly true of the prohibition question, and the greatest care must be taken to steer a clear course, between conflicting currents so as to arrive at definite and satisfactory conclusions (p. 2)."
Contents divided into sub-sections: Alcohol and Acquired Taste -- The Use of Alcohol -- The Moderate Drinker -- Why Men Drink -- The Drink Problem and Economic One -- Substitutes for the Saloon -- A Canadian Example -- The Opportunity for Social Service -- Conclusions Arrived At -- Conclusion -- Notes on the Gothenburg System -- Bibliography.
Subjects
Alcohol - Religious aspects - Anglican Church of Canada
Prohibition - Canada
Prohibition - Religious aspects - Anglican Church of Canada
Liquor laws - Canada
Temperance - Canada
Gothenburg system
Less detail

Report of Council for Social Service - Section VIII - Certain Moral Problems - Subsection 3 - Temperance and Liquor Control

http://archives.anglican.ca/en/permalink/official6071
Date
1949 September
Source
General Synod. Minutes
Record Type
Resolution
Date
1949 September
Source
General Synod. Minutes
Record Type
Resolution
Mover
Canon Judd
Seconder
Dr. S.H. Prince
Text
That, while recognizing that national and provincial control generally obtain in respect of the liquor traffic in Canada, the General Synod is not prepared to endorse at present any movement looking towards the nationalization and ownership of the traffic by Government and advises further study in this direction. Further, the Synod believes that the time is ripe for the Federal Authority to appoint a Royal Commission to study and report upon all phases of the liquor traffic in the light of modern medical and other scientific knowledge, the high complexity of the modern machine age, industrial life, and the rapid urbanization of society and urges the Federal Authority to appoint such a commission:
The General Synod in the meantime expresses its deep concern at the rapid increase in most provinces of the consumption of both malt liquors and spirits, with augmentation of ill effects to many areas of society, including youth, and to many phases of community life.
Further we appeal to our Church people to recognize the greatness of the evil and to set and maintain a standard in this matter consistent with their Christian profession. CARRIED in both Houses.
Subjects
Alcohol - Law and legislation - Canada
Drinking of alcoholic beverages - Canada
Alcoholism - Religious aspects - Anglican Church of Canada
Temperance - Canada
Less detail

Report of the Council for Social Service - Social and Moral Problems

http://archives.anglican.ca/en/permalink/official6187
Date
1943 September
Source
General Synod. Minutes
Record Type
Resolution
Date
1943 September
Source
General Synod. Minutes
Record Type
Resolution
Mover
Bishop of Athabasca
Seconder
Rev. G.H. Dowker
Text
(a) That this General Synod recognizing the increasingly severe restrictions imposed by the Government and people of Canada concerning food and certain amenities of life, and having due regard to the whole morale of the people in the conduct of the war, expresses the opinion that the Federal Government will be justified in at least continuing the modest restrictive measures regarding the sale of alcoholic beverages at present in effect, and,
(b) Further expresses the hope that our Church people will try by all means in their power to forward the cause of true temperance for the better protection of the youth and young womanhood of our country and for the better prosecution of the war. CARRIED in both Houses.
Subjects
Alcoholism - Religious aspects - Anglican Church of Canada
Alcohol - Law and legislation - Canada
Temperance - Canada
World War, 1939-1945 - Canada
Less detail

Substitutes for the Saloon

http://archives.anglican.ca/en/permalink/article468
Author
Michell, Humfrey, 1883-1970
Record Type
Journal Article
Journal
Bulletin [Council for Social Service]
Date
1919 February
Author
Michell, Humfrey, 1883-1970
Record Type
Journal Article
Journal
Bulletin [Council for Social Service]
Date
1919 February
Issue
21
Page
1-14 p.
Notes
Contents: Publications of the Council for Social Service of the Church of England in Canada -- Substitutes for the Saloon / [H. Michell].
"In October, 1917, the Council for Social Service through its `Bulletin' pronounced a grave warning. `We must not forget,' it said, `that when we pass a prohibition law we have done the easiest thing, the real difficulties lie ahead'. .... But whilst many of us have been preoccupied with the anxieties of the present and the future, not a few, but indeed great and increasing numbers have been considering with equal anxiety the absolute necessity for providing some counter attraction, or perhaps since the saloon no longer exists, some substitute for the now defunct social gathering place which was found formerly in the saloon (p. 3)".
Contents divided into sub-sections: The Working Man's Club -- The Situation Today -- A Programme for the Future -- Utilizing the Abandoned Saloon -- The Report of the Committee of Fifty -- Dancing -- The Moving Picture House -- The Greater Problem.
Bulletin appears to have been written by the Editor "H. Michell" based upon a footnote on page 8 which begins "Some of the pleasanter evenings of my life have been spent in such a club, run by a church in London, England, for cabmen" and which is signed "Editor."
Colophon: Hanson, Crozier & Edgar, Printers, Kingston.
Subjects
Alcohol - Religious aspects - Anglican Church of Canada
Prohibition - Canada
Prohibition - Religious aspects - Anglican Church of Canada
Liquor laws - Canada
Temperance - Canada
Recreation - Religious aspects - Anglican Church of Canada
Leisure - Religious aspects - Anglican Church of Canada
Dancing - Religious aspects - Anglican Church of Canada
Motion pictures - Religious aspects - Anglican Church of Canada
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10 records – page 1 of 1.