"Racism in Canada must be addressed, says Justice Murray Sinclair, chair of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC). 'Racism is a hard word for us to grapple with, but its one we must embrace', said Sinclair in his Aug. 14  keynote address at a TRC-hosted event in Toronto. The goal, he added, is to make it possible for future generations of aboriginal and non-aboriginal Canadians to 'talk to each other with respect'. Barbara Hall, chief commissioner of the Ontario Human Rights Commission, said 'persistent racism' continues despite the passage of the Ontario Human Rights Code 50 years ago. She urged Canadians to have 'many conversations' about racism". [Text of entire article.]
"The subject of immigration into Canada is a very difficult one; not simple, but extremely complex. It involves not only the problem of assimilating large numbers of aliens who do not speak English, and whose ways, ideals and outlook on life are radically, and in the case of the older ones at least, ineradicably different from our own, but also it involves another great problem, the effect of this influx of cheap, unskilled labour in to the industrial markets, and that is, perhaps, an even more difficult question that the other. Happily we have the experience of the United States to learn from. .... With the general, political and economic subject of immigration, in so far as it does not involve any moral or religious question, the Council for Social Services and the Church of England in Canada are not concerned; with certain aspects of it they are deeply interested, and it is with these that the present Bulletin deals, namely with Asiatic immigration (p. 3)."
Contents divided into sub-sections: The Limitation of Immigration -- East Indian Immigration into Canada -- The Question of Cheap Labour -- Report of the Sub-Committee -- Chinese Immigration -- Admittance of East Indians -- The Controversy Over East Indian Immigration -- Alleged Exclusion of Wives and Children -- South Africa -- Summary -- Bibliography.
Statements made by the Reverend Canon Burgess Carr to the General Synod of the Anglican Church of Canada in Calgary in August  have prompted a number of media articles, comments and reports, and individual reactions by Canadians. Canon Carr, Secretary General of the All Africa Conference of Churches was commenting on the Churches' support of liberation movements in Africa (through the World Council of Churches) and of Christian involvement with what is called "guerrilla warfare" by some, "freedom fighters" by others, as the struggle of "indigenous native peoples for basic rights" or "liberation movements" by still others.
In an effort to clarify the situation a lengthy position paper has been prepared by the Primate of the Anglican Church of Canada and some of its staff members. We enclose the full text of the paper for your information and hope you will keep it on file should there be further interest on the part of your readers or audience.
We would point out several highlights of the paper. Much misunderstanding has been created because the Anglican Church of Canada supports the World Council of Churches which, in turn, makes grants to groups such as the South-West Africa People's Organization (SWAPO). The paper points out that any such grants do not come from General WCC funds or even from the General Relief and Development Fund.
There is, in the WCC, a special Program to Combat Racism, which has a separate fund, maintained by special contributions from individuals, groups and churches given specifically for this purpose from which grants are made. No grant is given until strict criteria are met. These criteria are meant to insure that the grants are used for humanitarian purposes. However, there are charges that the money so provided releases other funds for military purposes. Since the WCC knows what much of the money is used for - support of people in refugee camps, education of children in areas of the country where liberation groups have control, health supplies - they are confident that it is being used for humanitarian purposes which would not, for the most part, be carried out to the same extent if grants were not made.
The tragic situation is that the focussing on these small grants made for humanitarian purposes has diverted attention from the fact that there are governments from both the "right" and the "left" who are quite prepared to provide arms when it suits their purposes, and have poured millions of dollars into military activity in Africa. This in contrast to the fact that the total amount expended by the special fund, not just in Africa but in every part of the world, would scarcely buy one tank if it had been diverted for such purposes, which is not the case.
In its first six years, the fund for the Programme to Combat Racism received and disbursed approximately $1,500,000 to groups on every continent. Roughly one-half of this went to Africa. There is one interesting facet of this for concerned Canadian Anglicans. The Anglican Church of Canada has contributed $10,000 annually to this Programme. Between 1970 and 1976, the Programme to Combat Racism has made amongst its grants, these:
The Inuit (Eskimo) Tapirisat of Canada - 1971 - $2,500.00
The National Indian Brotherhood (on behalf of the Cree) - 1973-4 - $12,500.00
The Indian Brotherhood of the N.W.T. - 1973 - $7,500.00
The Committee for Original Peoples Entitlement - 1976 - $10,000.00
For further information, please contact:
Richard J. Berryman
The Anglican Church of Canada
600 Jarvis Street
Toronto, Ontario M4Y 2J6
(416) 924-9192 ext. 253
ANGLICAN CHURCH OF CANADA POSITION PAPER ON THE WORLD COUNCIL OF CHURCHES PROGRAM TO COMBAT RACISM
Statements made by the Reverend Canon Burgess Carr to the General Synod of the Anglican Church of Canada in Calgary in August  have prompted a number of media articles, comments and reports, and individual reactions by Canadians. Canon Carr, Secretary General of the All Africa Conference of Churches, was commenting on the Churches' support of liberation movements in Africa (through the World Council of Churches) and of Christian involvement with what is called "guerrilla warfare" by some, "freedom fighters" by others, as the struggle of "indigenous native peoples for basic rights" by others and "liberation movements" by others. These groups are all involved in a struggle against "racism."
The Churches because they believe that "God has created of one blood all nations of people," and because they believe human beings are made in the image of God, and are therefore of value and worth have, particularly in the last quarter century pressed for the recognition of the need for conversations between the aggrieved majorities of Southern Africa and their minority governments. This separation has in many instances, particularly in the cases of South Africa and Rhodesia, existed in extreme form because racism has been structured into law. The clear preference of the Churches and the vast majority of those involved in a search for a change has been to seek non-violent change. But within the broadly based groups seeking change there have been and are some elements which have come to believe that the necessary changes will not come about by non-violent means, and also some individuals and groups who under extreme provocation in particular instances have resorted to violence. Such groups and actions are also to be discovered in the historical development of Britain, Canada and the U.S.A. -- in fact of virtually every country in the world.
In Africa some black groups have resorted to war always against huge odds, only when other methods of achieving change have been exhausted -- when they have seen other methods have been increasingly restricted by such actions as banning of distribution of literature, of the right to meet together, and to organize, and now more and more they are suffering personal detention and harassment. The most recent example of this is the case of Steve Biko, a prominent young leader devoted to non-violence whose death occurred during imprisonment.
Stories of brutality by liberation movements have been publicized but these can be matched and perhaps exceeded by stories of brutality involving violent oppression, torture, and death on the part of ruling governments over many years. But trading of atrocity stories accomplishes very little, if anything. Three things need to be recognized.
1. Violence does exist.
2. Violence of itself cannot create a better or more just world, and all too often violence leaders to counter violence in an ascending scale.
3. Today it is recognized that very often there is a high level of violence in many institutionalized structures, particularly in Africa.
But violence has been and is a part of history and there have been times when violence has destroyed a repressive situation and provided an opportunity to develop something new in its place. There have also been times when violence has been used to destroy hopeful conditions and to bring about oppression and exploitation. The place of violence and non-violence in social change is a complex one and one which the World Council of Churches has been studying carefully and, I believe, responsibly (see attached document).
Even as this study has been progressing, the World Council, because of the Christian call to stand on the side of the oppressed and to work for liberation, which was the ter[m] in which Jesus described his ministry:
"And there was delivered unto him the book of the prophet Esaias. And when he opened the book he found the place where it was written, The Spirit of the Lord in [i.e. is] upon me, because he hath anointed me to preach the gospel to the poor; he hath sent me to heal the broken-hearted, to preach deliverance to the captives, and recovering of sight to the blind, to set at liberty them that are bruised, to preach the acceptable year of the Lord. And he closed the book, and he gave it again to the minister and sat down. And the eyes of all them that were in the synagogue were fastened on him. And he began to say unto them, This day is this scripture fulfilled in your ears." (Luke 4:17-21)
The World Council has sought to take positive action to identify with those who are struggling against racism in many parts of the world through a special program designed to combat racism. This program has three sections.
1. An administrative section with three staff members which initiates studies.
2. A program section with projects undertaken by church groups designed to combat racism as it is found in particular forms and places.
3. Grants made from a special fund which was formed by an initial grant from the WCC and maintained since then by special contributions made by individuals, groups and Churches who give money directly to this fund for its stated purposes. In its first six years the fund received and disbursed approximately $1,500,000 to organizations and groups in various parts of the world, part of whose program is designed to combat racism. Grants to such groups have been made on every continent. They are applied for, but are not given until the organizations agree to use the grants according to strict criteria as follows:
-1. The purpose of the organizations must not be inconsonant with the general purposes of the WCC and its units, and the grants are to be used for humanitarian activities (i.e. social, health and educational purposes, legal aid, etc.).
-2. The proceeds of the Fund shall be used to support organizations that combat racism, rather than welfare organizations that alleviate the effects of racism and which would normally be eligible for support from other units of the World Council of Churches.
-3. (a) The focus of grants should be on raising the level of awareness and strengthening the organizational capability of the racially oppressed people.
- (b) In addition, we recognize the need to support organizations that align themselves with the victims of racial injustice and pursue the same objectives.
4. The grants are intended as an expression of commitment by the PCR to the cause of economic, social and political justice, which these organizations promote.
5.(a) The situation in Southern Africa is recognized as a priority due to the overt and intensive nature of white racism and the increasing awareness on the part of the oppressed in their struggle for liberation.
- (b) In the selection of other areas we have taken account of those places where the struggle is most intense and where a grant might make a substantial contribution to the process of liberation, particularly where racial groups are in imminent danger of being physically or culturally exterminated.
- (c) In considering applications from organizations in countries of white and affluent majorities, we have taken not only of those where political involvement precludes help from other sources.
6. Grants should be made with due regard to where they can have the maximum effect: token grants should not be made unless there is a possibility of their eliciting a substantial response from other organizations.
The geographic area where the grants have led to much discussion is Africa. Southern Africa has received approximately one half of the grants made thus far. Here there has been no case where it was ever proven that the grants were used for military purposes. However, there are charges that the money so provided released other funds for military purposes. Since we know what much of the money is used for -- support of people in refugee camps, education of children in areas of the country where liberation groups have control, health supplies -- we are confident that they are being used for humanitarian purposes which would not, for the most part, be carried out to the same extent if grants were not made.
The tragic situation is that the focussing on these small grants made for humanitarian purposes has diverted attention from the fact that there are governments from both the "right" and the "left" who are quite prepared to provide arms when it suits their purpose, and have poured millions of dollars into military activity in Africa. This in contrast to the fact that the total amount expended by the special fund, not just in Africa but in every part of the world, would scarcely buy one tank if it had been diverted for such purposes, which is not the case.
Three things are clearly evident. One, a hopeful one, is that many people are concerned about the growing use of violence and of how the Churches should be responding to it. As long as violence exists, Churches and Church people must grapple with this reality and try to sort out how to respond to this reality with Christian insights. Christians do not share a common mind about this. The position Christians take is often greatly influenced by the context or conditions under which they live and by the alternative courses of action which are open or closed to them. As understanding of this fact grows the polarization within the Churches becomes less.
Second, certain groups seem clearly involved in opposing the program to combat racism and to focus attention upon it as a way to keep general attention away from some of the underlying causal conditions which lead to violence.
Third, to set violence and non-violence as they relate to social change, as the only two positions and in complete opposition is to ignore reality. They are better viewed as the two extremes of an arc in which there are a wide variety of shades of opinion and of action. The following Social Involvement Rating Scale helps to identify some of the modes of action open to individuals and groups within society and the Church. Studied carefully, it helps us gain a deeper understanding of a complex issue and also to identify where we stand and why.
SOCIAL INVOLVEMENT RATING SCALE
1. 'Non-involvement': Conscious avoidance of any involvement in social and political activities.
2. 'Reactive involvement': Involvement in social and political activities occurs mainly when the church is in an established position but when institutional power is threatened or influence is eroded due to social change processes. Involvement can either by [i.e. be] directly or indirectly political.
3. 'Active Personal Involvement': Involvement is positive (not reactive), but limited to personal issues not seen as related to the social structure. Action is 'non political' and is concerned with individual development and improvement of personal welfare services.
4. 'Active Social Involvement' (concensus) [i.e. consensus]: Involvement is positive, but extending beyond personal issues seeking incremental, gradual change in the social structure and attitudes by educational methods using democratic processes.
5. 'Active Involvement in Structural Change' (conflict): Involvement is characterised by greater political activism using confronting techniques to achieve incremental but more rapid evolutionary changes in social structure.
6. 'Indirect Involvement in Revolution': Involvement by using non-violent techniques aimed at the peaceful overthrow of existing political and social structures.
7. 'Direct Active Involvement in Revolution': Involvement by using techniques aimed at the violent overthrow of existing oppressive political and social structures.
[Graphic showing an arc graph with labels from left to right] Non-involvement, Reactive Involvement, Active Personal Involvement, Active Social Involvement (consensus), Active Involvement in structural change (conflict), Indirect Involvement in revolution, Direct Active Involvement in revolution - Adapted from a scale developed by the Reverend Peter J. Hollingsworth, Melbourne, Australia.
Mayann Elizabeth Francis "was the 31st lieutenant governor of her province -- and the second black person in Canada and the first black person in Nova Scotia to hold the vice-regal office". Francis was raised in Sydney's working-class Whitney Pier neighbourhood. She is a "devout Anglican and eucharistic minister at All Saints' Anglican Cathedral in Halifax". As Lieutenant Governor "in 2010 Francis invoked royal prerogative and granted Canada's first posthumous pardon to Viola Desmond, a black Nova Scotian who, in 1946, insisted on sitting in the whites-only section of a New Glasgow movie theatre. Desmond was arrested and ludicrously charged with ticket-related tax fraud, a battle she lost in court". "Of the current state of racism in Canada, Francis says" 'While I believe racial discrimination still exists here and elsewhere, we can learn from the mistakes of the past and celebrate the gains we have made. At the same time, we must acknowledge and understand that there is still work to be done'. For Francis, being a trailblazer requires help. 'I always rely on my faith, prayer and Christian teachings', she says. 'You have to have something to give your that strength and that courage and that energy to keep moving'. Prayer is the fuel that keeps her going".
Includes bibliographical references and bibliography: p. 251-265.
"The Church has a responsibility to promote racial justice in its own ranks as well as society in general. Mukasa provides appropriate tools for the Church to live out its faith in action; to end racism, ethnocentrism, classism, sexism, ageism and heterosexism. As the world becomes a global village, the need to understand the dynamics of fear fed by distrust and the misunderstanding of difference grows. Those with the power to define others seem to be gaining ground. It is imperative for the Church to be inclusive in its confession. Mukasa demonstrates how the United Church struggles to listen to stories of the marginalized and to affirm their subjectivity as part of its comprehensive policy against racism" (p. vii). .... "Mukasa devotes a considerable part of his discussion to the analysis of the Anti Racism policy of the United Church" (p. viii). -- Foreword.
Contents divided into five main sections: Introduction -- Part One: The Problem of Racism : A Theoretical Framework -- Part Two: The United Church of Canada and the Problem of Institutional Racism -- Part Three: The United Church of Canada and the Problem of Cultural Racism -- Part Four: Considering the Theological Problem.
Contents: Acknowledgements -- Foreword / Omega Bula -- Introduction -- Part One: The Problem of Racism : A Theoretical Framework -- Introduction -- Race, Racism and Racialization -- Racism as Ideology and Discourse -- Racism in Practical Form -- Summary -- Part Two: The United Church of Canada and the Problem of Institutional Racism -- Introduction -- The Praxis of Anti-Racism in the United Church -- Striving to Understand the Problem -- The Significance of Process and Method -- Summary -- Part Three: The United Church of Canada and the Problem of Cultural Racism -- Introduction -- Constructing Subjectivity and the Other -- Deconstructing Cultural Hierarchies -- Diverse Voices, Multiple Realities -- Summary -- Part Four: Considering the Theological Problem -- Introduction -- The Church and Its Doctrines -- Correlation of Questions and Answers -- Correlation of Meanings -- Toward a Transformative Confession -- Summary -- Concluding Remarks -- Bibliography.
Author is an Anglican priest in the Diocese of Toronto.
"From 1825 until 1839, Bermuda was part of the diocese served by Right Reverend John Inglis, third Anglican Bishop of Nova Scotia. .... The purpose of this paper is to examine the attitude of Bishop John Inglis toward race relations in Bermuda" (p. 25). "In 1832, the year before the British Parliament passed legislation abolishing slavery throughout the Empire, Bermuda had 4,181 white people, 1,068 free blacks, and 3,608 slaves" (p. 26). "It is certain that when the British Parliament offered the slaveowners throughout the British Empire financial compensation in exchange for their slaves, Bermuda's joined Antigua's masters as the only ones to grant unconditional freedom on the first possible day. Elsewhere there was a transition period, labelled apprenticeship" (p. 27). Bishop John Inglis' "interest in Nova Scotian blacks pre-dated his becoming a bishop and having responsibility for Bermuda. A search through Inglis' correspondence reveals that he maintained his interest in blacks and black education, in both Nova Scotia and Bermuda, throughout his episcopacy" (p. 28). "Given the standards of the day, Bishop [John] Inglis was liberal in matters of race, but not all his successors were as enlightened. A self-confessed racist, all his life, Edward Field, Bishop of Newfoundland with responsibility for Bermuda from 1844 to 1876, had to overcome his initial sense of repugnance before he could as much as baptize black babies" (p. 30).
That the Council of General Synod approve the draft statement of the Canadian Council of Churches on anti-Semitism. CARRIED #20-11-03
Draft CCC Statement on anti-Semitism
An open letter from the Canadian Council of Churches, to the Churches of Canada, the Jewish Community in Canada, and to all people of good will.
The Canadian Council of Churches is an Ecumenical forum of twenty denominations including the Anglican, Protestant, Orthodox, and Roman Catholic communions.
In this letter, we are addressing one situation only, which is a Canadian one. While we recognize that there are other serious situations here in Canada and throughout the world which demand the faithful attention of all people of good will, we have become profoundly concerned and deeply dismayed by the alarming increase of antisemitism in Canada. This antisemitism has taken many forms, including violence against Jewish persons -- simply because of their ethnic or religious background, and the desecration of Holy places and cemeteries. We have become alerted to this resurgent evil through our own witness, through the media, and through the testimony of others, including members of the Judiciary of the Court of Appeal of Ontario and the Ontario Superior Court of Justice.
We the representatives of the vast majority of Christian churches in Canada are fully aware of and deeply grateful for the Jewish roots of our faith traditions. In the Epistle to the Romans, Chapter 11, verses 17 and 18, St. Paul wrote,
"You Gentiles are like a branch of a wild olive tree that were made to be a part of a cultivated olive tree ... you enjoy the blessings that come from being part of that cultivated tree ... Just remember that you are not supporting the roots of that tree. Its roots are supporting you." (Contemporary English Version)
Therefore we would declare our unqualified gratitude for the gifts of the Jewish people to world civilization in general and Canadian society in particular.
We acknowledge with sadness and regret, and with no little shame, the historic burden of persecution which Jews have borne throughout western history, a burden all too often inflicted by Christians, who have maligned Jesus' own people in Jesus' name.
We challenge all the churches, parishes, congregations and members of our forum to find ways and means to expose and eradicate antisemitism within and from Canadian society.
We must not be silent.
We urge all Canadians, within our forum community and beyond, to exercise the greatest diligence on behalf of our Jewish friends and neighbours, that when they come under attack, and their sacred places desecrated, that they find true solidarity in establishing security and in redressing wrong.
We invite all our people, where the opportunity exists, to become acquainted with our Jewish brothers and sisters and with their places of worship in communities from coast to coast to coast, celebrating all that we share with our Jewish friends and neighbours, and respecting our differences.
As a Council of Churches, we commit ourselves to demonstrating not only through words but through united action, our determination to confront antisemitism on every front.
This we pledge in the unwavering conviction of the eternal love of Almighty God for all peoples and nations, in the unwavering conviction that we are, Jews and Christians alike, brothers and sisters, children of one God, heirs in faith of Abraham and Sarah.
The Canadian labour movement was challenged to be "true to its own story and not to lose its soul" by the Most Rev. E.W. Scott, Primate of the Anglican Church of Canada, speaking at the opening of the convention of the Brotherhood of Railway and General Workers in Toronto, today.
"Is the labour movement concerned about groups who are powerless, or is its primary interest to increase its own power?" Archbishop Scott asked. Since unions grew from experiences of injustice and a sense of powerlessness, Archbishop Scott wondered what part they were now playing in the struggle of the "powerless peoples" to share in the economic benefits and decision making of an increasingly inter-locking world economy. He said he has already asked the same question of representatives of Canadian business, federal and provincial governments and within the church.
"How many Indians and Eskimo people have been welcomed into organized labour and how hard does labour work to equalize the benefits within its own ranks?" he asked. Archbishop Scott said "many people rightly criticize the church as it so often fails to be true to its own principles, the same may well be true of the labour movement."
"One of the things that people who have been oppressed learn all too well is how to oppress when they gain power," said Archbishop Scott. He appealed to the convention to "rise above that very real temptation and be true to your own story."
"A national consultation on anti-racism training held Nov. 6  drew 35 participants to South Surrey, B.C., on unceded Coast Salish territory, land of Semiahmoo. The event was aimed at building on the work begun by General Synod -- the governing body of the Anglican Church of Canada -- such as the adoption of the Charter for Racial Justice and since 2001, the anti-racism training of all its committees and councils. It was also intended to establish connections and build capacity to carry out anti-racism work at the diocesan level. Participants, who included representatives from 16 dioceses across Canada, shared stories, attended workshops and listened to keynote speaker Paulette Regan. Regan is the director of research for the Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada, a leading scholar on reconciliation and author of 'Unsettling the Settler Within: Indian Residential Schools, Truth Telling, and Reconciliation in Canada'. At the end of the meeting, participants agreed to make plans for anti-racism awareness, education and action in their dioceses. The consultation was funded by the Anglican Healing Fund and the office of the general secretary of the Anglican Church of Canada, with support from the Primate's World Relief and Development Fund, the church's relief and development arm". [Text of entire article.]
That this Council, through the General Secretary, write to the Minister of Immigration:
a) communicating our deep regret at the denial of visas to elected delegates of the LWF [Lutheran World Federation] Assembly;
b) asking that the Government of Canada reconsider the policies which led to these denials;
c) stressing our concern that these policies led to a discriminatory outcome, where women and youth, and representatives of particular countries, were denied access to a meeting of their global church;
d) indicating that, in the light of these events, we believe that Canada's reputation as a safe place for global discourse has suffered;
e) and that a copy of this resolution be forwarded to the ELCIC [Evangelical Lutheran Church in Canada]. CARRIED #28-11-03