"We might have a more technically correct title to this Bulletin, but we desire to distinguish it from Bulletin No. 108, to which it is a direct sequel. That Bulletin, entitled `Social Insurance and Material Aid in Canada', was published in May 1942. We publish this Bulletin to keep the clergy of our Church and other readers abreast of governmental movements towards an adequate plan of `social security' for our people." "Our Council for Social Service, acting carefully under General Synod and its Executive Council, has urged a closer co-operation of provincial and federal action, a unified plan for a minimum income for all the disabilities of life, and in appropriate matters the active participation of all in a contributory plan". "As well, however, this present Bulletin has a more practical object -- to let our clergy, particularly, know what actual measures of assistance are available for their people, for Old Age, Children, Mothers, the Family, the sick and helpless." "Dr. Charlotte Whitton, a member of our Council, has again come to our aid. The main article in the Bulletin, with its various schedules, has been supplied by her. Under her three main headings, Dr. Whitton has indicated the differences between Social Insurance (for Unemployment only, thus far), Social Assistance, and the more general (but very practical) Social Utilities from which all citizens derive help. We are indebted to her. As we go to press public announcement has been made of annual grants amounting to $30,000,000 to be made by the Federal Government to the Provinces to assist them in various improvements or additions to their health services. This is welcome news. We trust that all Provinces will participate in the responsibilities and benefits. This may prove to be a first step towards a plan for nation-wide health services on a prepaid basis". -- Editor's Note.
Contents: Editor's Note / W.W. Judd -- Social Aid in the Canadian State / Charlotte E. Whitton.
"At first sight this lengthy Bulletin may appear to be of little use to the clergy. We were anxious to give them a general picture of the services available for their people in each Province. .... Dr. Charlotte Whitton has come to our assistance again. She wrote the main article for our Bulletin No. 135 a year ago, `Aids to Social Security in Canada Today'. .... This present Bulletin will have an equal, or even more practical use. Health of body, mind and spirit is a definite concern of the Christian Church. While the Provinces have full responsibility for the oversight of the Health Services within their boundaries ... the Federal authority must of necessity have a very direct interest in the health of the Canadian people as a whole. It was therefore logical that some years ago a Department of Health was set up, now the Ministry of National Health and Welfare, and that grants are now being made to the Provinces to assist them in their various health programmes. .... The central section of Dr. Whitton's article may be of most practical use to the clergy, presenting as it does, an outline of the services available in each Province". -- Foreword.
Contents: Foreword / W.W. Judd -- Understanding Our Health Needs / Charlotte E. Whitton -- Pertinent Books in the Council's Library.
(MONTREAL ) May 24, 1998 -- Anglicans across the country will be asked to respond to a new report which says the church cannot support euthanasia or assisted suicide.
The report, which will be presented to the 300 members gathered for the Anglican Church of Canada's General Synod meeting here this week, states that such practices represent a "serious failure of human community".
"The Christian response is always one of hope," the report says. "From this hope there arises the commitment to give all members of society, especially the most vulnerable, the assurance that they will be supported in all circumstances of their lives, that they will not have dehumanizing medical interventions forced upon them, and that they will not be abandoned in their suffering."
Although the report acknowledges that individuals on both sides of this issue hold genuine concern for the protection of human dignity, it states that euthanasia is likely to have different impact on different parts of society. "We are concerned about the impact that making euthanasia available would have on the elderly and the disabled. We are also concerned that women may be more severely impacted than men."
The report goes on "We would further urge that the attempt to change the law and practice at a time when health services are being cut back and costs downloaded onto patients and their families is inappropriate."
The report notes the Anglican church's long history of providing many forms of care and support for the dying, including palliative care and hospices which attempt to alleviate pain and maintain the dignity of life.
"Good medical practice sustains the commitment to care even when it is no longer possible to cure," the report says. "Such care may involve the removal of therapies that are ineffective and/or intolerably burdensome, in favor of palliative measures. We do not support the idea that care can include an act or omission whose primary intention is to end a person's life."
The report adds: "Our underlying commitment is that health care delivery as a whole should reflect the desire of Canadians to be a community that sustains the dignity and worth of all its members".
General Synod delegates are to debate the report in the next few days.
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Contact: Sam Carriere or Lorie Chortyk, General Synod News Room (514) 398-5192; Cell phones: (514) 953-7981 (Carriere) or (514) 953-8091 (Chortyk)
That the Council of General Synod endorse the 'covenant' written by the Ecumenical Task Force on Health Care and conceptually incorporated into the Romanow Report (Appendix C). CARRIED #12-05-03
A HEALTH CARE COVENANT FOR ALL PEOPLE IN CANADA
The Ecumenical Health Care Network of The Canadian Council of Churches
People in Canada understand that how we care for others defines the nature of who we are as a national community. We also know that what we owe each other is essential for who we are as a people. Thus, we have empowered our governments to steward public resources and develop and administer social policy for the common good of all; to ensure that,
"Everyone has the right to a standard of living adequate for the health and well-being of himself and his family, including, food, clothing, housing, and medical care and necessary social services, and the right to security in the event of unemployment, sickness, disability, widowhood, old age or other lack of livelihood in circumstances beyond his control." U.N. Universal Declaration on Human Rights, Article 25
As signatory to the World Health Organization Charter, we in Canada have pledged ourselves to a holistic vision of well-being that understands our `health' as "[...] a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity".
As members of a national community, we in Canada understand that a community actively promotes and nurtures health through compassion, mutuality, care, trust, respect, security and active attention to what justice requires of us.
Thus, in fulfillment of our mutual responsibilities, we and our governments solemnly promise to actively pursue and safeguard a holistic and integrated vision of health care for all people in Canada.
Through government, we in Canada pledge to:
Universal Access, Comprehensiveness and Portability
- provide access to comprehensive health care services for individuals, families and communities that places the priority on the worth and dignity of the whole person and their biological, emotional, physical, environmental, social and spiritual needs wherever they may be in Canada;
Social Solidarity and Justice
- uphold a health care system through which all people in Canada share the benefits of health and the burdens of illness with particular compassion for the weak, caring for the vulnerable, solidarity with our neighbours and a commitment to social justice for all;
Open to All People in Canada
- preserve inviolate a health care system that applies to all people in Canada without discrimination toward race, colour, sex, sexual orientation, ability, disability, ethnic origin, language, place of residence, economic status, religion or any other distinction;
Social Health and Well-being
- utilize a systemic approach to creating public policies that, intentionally integrate the social, economic, cultural and environmental determinants of well-being with health;
Human Rights and Public Good
- ensure that access to health care is maintained as a human right and a public good, recognizing that health care interactions have meaning to people as a place of caring; health care is not a commodity;
Honour the Vocation and Contribution of All Health Care Providers
- utilize fully the capabilities of all health care professionals, including indigenous practitioners covered under the Canada Health Act, and honour the vocation of all who provide care, whether paid or unpaid;
Public Stewardship and Accountability
- safeguard public administration and limit for-profit delivery of care through mutually enforceable federal and provincial regulations upholding standards of public accountability for a system that addresses the health care needs of individuals, families and communities;
Collaboration and Shared Responsibility
- develop and sustain a health care system founded upon the principles of collaboration and shared responsibility between governments and among providers, not competition or market imperative; and
Participation and Decision-making
- recognize that health is unique to individuals, families and communities and as such, to honour the right of people to participate in the decisions that affect them and their health.
"Submitted by the Committee on Research to the Social Service Council of Canada". -- cover.
"A Preface by C.W. Vernon, Chairman of the Research Committee of the Social Service Council of Canada". -- p. iii.
"After careful consideration, the Research Committee of the Social Service Council of Canada, established as a result of the action taken by the last Annual Meeting of the Council, decided unanimously that one of the major subjects to which its thought and study should be directed during 1926, should be `Housing in Canada'. .... This will therefore be Number 1 of the Committee's studies on `Housing in Canada'. The Committee respectfully asks the Council's permission to continue its work along these lines next year, when it hopes to deal more fully with remedial measures and, if possible, to set forth the minimum requirements of a healthy home in the way of cubic contents per individual, of ventilation, of light, heating, water, drainage, yard and garden, etc. .... Meanwhile the committee is convinced that there is widespread ignorance on this subject, even among people usually well-informed, and that unsatisfactory housing conditions are not uncommon even in the homes of the reasonably well-to-do". -- Preface.
Contents: Housing in Canada: A Preface / C.W. Vernon -- Housing in Relation to Land Development / A.G. Dalzell.
Main section divided into sub-sections: Introduction -- Housing in Rural Districts -- Housing in Urban Communities -- Appendix A: Housing in Canada: General Project of Federal Government -- Appendix B: Final Report on Housing Project of Federal Government: From Report of the Department of Health Fiscal Year Ending March 31, 1924 -- Appendix C: Official Reports on Housing Conditions of Miners in Nova Scotia.
Contents: Publications of the Council for Social Service of the Church of England in Canada -- Infant Mortality.
"`Why do three times as many children per hundred births die in infancy in Ottawa than in Hampstead in England ? Why do more infants per hundred die in Fort William and Windsor and Kingston than in such wretched London slums such as Shoreditch, Bermondsey and Bethnal Green. -- Reconstruction, 1918.' It is high time that we in Canada should face the facts as to our rate of infant mortality, and having realized the real state of affairs, bestir ourselves to remedy them (p. 3)." "Generally speaking, infant mortality may be traced to specific causes outside of the infant itself. That is to say, between 80 and 90 per cent. of all children born enter this world in a healthy condition with a good fighting chance of surviving. The reasons why they do not survive are as follows: -- 1. The fact that their mothers are forced to work outside the home. 2. Poverty of the parents, not necessarily allied to the first reason, or accompanied by it. 3. Ignorance on the part of the mothers, generally but not always accompanied by improper feeding, and the failure of the mother to nurse her own child. 4. Intemperance of one or both of the parents. 5. Disease (p. 5)."
Contents divided into sub-sections: The Protest of the Doctors -- Reasons for Infant Mortality -- Mothers Working Outside the Home -- Poverty and Infant Mortality -- Infant Mortality and Eugenics -- The Other Side of the Argument -- An Examination of the Case -- Improper Feeding -- Housing and Sanitation -- Intemperance of Parents -- What a Doctor Did in Fort William.
"This book, then, is an attempt to tell the story of the TB epidemic among the Inuit, to give a voice to the patients and their families, and to try to give a human face to the bare statistics. It also attempts to show the difficulties and effort of the many workers who tried their hardest to solve the countless problems they were faced with and who did, in the end, bring the disease under control and thus save the people from physical annihilation. This is their story too. The story is, of course, written with the incomplete knowledge of a southerner, who cannot hope to have a full understanding of this catastrophic episode from the Inuit point of view and who can only dimly perceive the impact that this massive event must have had on the communities scattered throughout the North and on the individual lives of the people directly affected". -- Intro., p. xxiii-xxiv.
Contents divided into four main parts: Part One: Setting the Scene -- Part Two: Events -- Part Three: Conclusions -- Appendices.
Contents: Tables -- Figures and Maps -- Place Names -- Abbreviations -- Acknowledgements -- Introduction -- Illustrations following -- A Brief History of Tuberculosis in Canada -- The Inuit People and the Arctic -- Other Players: The Hudson's Bay Company and the Missionaries -- Other Players: The Government and the RCMP -- Emergence of the Problem -- The Assault -- The Eastern Arctic Patrol -- Life in the San -- After the Hospital: Going Home, or a Southern Grave -- The 1960s: New Measures in the Northwest Territories -- Distinct but Similar: The Epidemic in Quebec and Newfoundland -- The Balance Sheet: One Person's Point of View -- Appendix 1: Arctic Administration and Principal Events, 1870-1970 -- Appendix 2: Interviews -- Appendix 3: Hospitals to which Inuit Were Sent, 1940s to 1960s -- NANR "Standard Eskimo Discharge Kit" -- Notes -- A Note on Sources -- Credits -- Index.
McGill-Queen's/Hannah Institute Studies in the history of medicine, health, and society; 2
"The high complexity of modern life presents an added challenge to the ministers of Christ's religion. Two new sciences in particular should affect their attitudes and their practice as they seek to serve the sick, the worried, the erring, the apparently lost. Modern Social Science -- a rather loose term signifying welfare and community work -- is a recognized necessity in our twentieth century civilization. Its agents, the welfare workers, perform a needed ministry. The Church's ministers if they would be effective today, must know about the Social Services and Government aids of all kinds and they must work with the agency workers. Each ministry has much to contribute to the other. .... The other new developing science is psychology, with its departmental associate, psychiatry. The ministry of the Great Physician has always known something of the spiritual and moral elements of human problems and of the relationship of those problems to health, to the total integration of human beings, and to social living. .... Two practical points arising from it are emphasized by the present writer. First, our divinity students and younger clergy require more special training than most of them are getting in the approach to all health (in its broad meaning) problem. .... Secondly, there is great need in our Church's ministry for specialists, for special work among the mentally ill, the prisoners, delinquents and criminals. .... The Pastoral Ministry is, in a sense rightly or wrongly, on trial today. Two things at least are necessary -- a knowledge of the Social Services of the day and special training to enable them to take advantage of (and to get in right focus) certain laudable elements of the work of modern psychologists and psychiatrists". -- Foreword.
Contents: Foreword / W.W. Judd -- The Church and Social Welare [sic i.e. Welfare] : An Address given at the Prize-Giving of the Divinity Class, Trinity College, Toronto, April 29, 1947 / R.E.G. Davis -- "The Church and the Mental Hygiene Movement" : The Vernon-Woods Prize Winning Essay, 1947 / Howard W. Buchner -- Addenda : Excerpt from Another Vernon-Woods Essay / D.S. Gausby -- Clinical Training for Divinity Students : From the 1947 Annual Report of The Council for Social Service for Consideration by the Executive Council of General Synod -- Pertinent Books in the Council's Library.
Contents: Publications of the Council for Social Service of the Church of England in Canada -- Reconstruction II / [H. Michell].
"To the discerning there is probably no question which gives rise to greater anxiety than the fear, arising practically to a certainty, that we shall be faced with a serious moral and spiritual reaction [after World War I ends]; in other words we shall be in for a very bad `slump' in high ideals, an expression which makes up in directness what it lacks in elegance (p. 3)".
"We are slowly, but only very slowly, and with infinite difficulty beginning to see that the forward movement of the future in all national and international polity must be preventive and not curative. Disease, poverty, misery, crime, must all be prevented. .... We have built hospitals enough in all conscience, but have we determinedly grappled with the causes that make people sick ? .... We must be seized with that divine discontent that will not let us rest while there are things to be done which cry out for us to set our hands to them, while there are wrongs to be righted that demand our courage to grapple with them, while there are crooked paths to be made straight, and captives to me set free. ..... But at this point we arrive at a very serious consideration. The pace of advancement, the desire for iconoclasm, the fury for reconstruction after the war is going to be very great. There will be a furious battle fought between extreme radicalism on the one side and extreme reaction on the other. To which party will the Church belong ? (pp. 11-13)". "It will be in these ways that the Church will find her great and God-inspired task for the future. She must stand between the combatants, the reactionaries and the radicals, and by the sweet reasonableness of her teaching show the way to a fuller realization of that righteousness which exalteth a nation" (p. 15).
Contents divided into sub-sections: Problems of Reconstruction: 4. Prohibition -- How To Meet Reaction -- Problems of Reconstruction: 5. Education -- Problems of Reconstruction: 6. Control of Disease -- The Legislation of the Future -- The New Outlook.
Bulletin appears to have been written by the Editor "H. Michell" based upon a footnote on page 7 which begins "Perhaps I may be forgiven for citing a personal instance" and which is signed "H.M."
Medicare - Archdeacon Lucas and Dr. Gould reported on a Conference "to help save Medicare" which they attended with Dr. N. Busing. The Conference was co-sponsored by the Canadian Council of Churches and the Canadian Labour Congress. It was stated that the Canadian Medical Association and private insurance companies are not in favour of Medicare and that the present government has not identified social service as a priority.
Moved by Dr. D.H. Gould, seconded by Ven. P.S. Lucas,
That this National Executive Council agree to enter into the proposed Canadian Health Coalition, which will have as its first task the establishment of a Medicare Defence Committee, and later become a specialized organization for consumers of health care; and urge the appropriate Diocesan or Ecclesiastical Provincial authorities to enter into similar Provincial coalitions.
That this motion be tabled until later in the meeting. CARRIED
Later in the meeting the motion was put and CARRIED.