"Prepared for the Aboriginal Healing Foundation by Madeleine Dion Stout and Gregory Kipling".
Includes bibliographical references, p. 59-64.
"The government of Canada established the Aboriginal Healing Foundation (AHF) in March 1998 to address the Legacy of Physical and Sexual Abuse suffered by Aboriginal people in residential schools. Since the Foundation supports research that promotes healing, a priority to study the resilience of individuals, families and communities within the context of the residential school legacy has been acknowledged. In this report, a critical analysis of the resilience literature is undertaken and is considered against the cultures, lived experiences and larger social contexts of Aboriginal Survivors of residential school. The findings, summarized below, serve as the basis for recommended actions in the areas of planning and research, interventions and evaluation". -- Executive Summary.
"The fourth national event of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC), held in Prairieland Park, Saskatoon, [21-24 June 2012], was not just about the survivors. It was also about their children and grandchildren, said TRC Commissioner, Mr. Justice Murray Sinclair. 'The intergenerational survivors need a chance to have their voices heard' he said, pointing out that over a 130-year period, the schools affected seven generations, causing 'a lot of damage to individuals, families and communities. It may take another seven generations to achieve that state of balance that the schools took away' he added. All Canadians must understand the legacy of the schools and take responsibility for this national disgrace, said Sinclair. 'This is not an Indian problem; this is a Canadian problem. Saskatchewan has one of Canada's highest number of survivors of the residential school system -- some 30,000 First Nation and Metis people have applied for compensation under the class-action settlement agreement". [Text of virtually all the article.]
"Prepared for The Aboriginal Healing Foundation By Deborah Chansonneuve."
Includes bibliographical references, p. 101-116.
"Increasingly, evidence shows the most effective addictions prevention and intervention programming for Aboriginal people is grounded in the wisdom of traditional Inuit, Metis, and First Nation teachings about a holistic approach to a healthy life. Aboriginal belief systems have much to teach about a broader approach to recovery because they emphasize: that all aspects of well-being are equally important and interconnected, including the physical, emotional, mental, and spiritual; that balanced well-being is throughout the lifespan; and that individual health is an aspect of the health of families, communities, nations, and the environment. In the context of addictive behaviours, an Aboriginal approach begins with the premise that each of these three areas must be addressed in order to sustain improvements over the long term. 'Good Medicine' is what strengthens the mind, body, heart, and spirit. Stories of healing strengthen and inspire those who hear them; these stories are the 'Good Medicine' of the healing movement". -- Intro.
Contents: Acknowledgements -- Introduction -- Looking Back to Move Forward -- Addictive Behaviours and Residential School Abuse -- Using the Wisdom of Culture to Promote Healing -- Five Stories of Hope --Promising Practices in Addictions Prevention and Intervention -- Conclusion and Continuation of the Journey -- Appendix A: Fact Sheets -- Appendix B: List of Key Informants -- Appendix C: Annotated Bibliography -- References.
TORONTO (Dec. 18, 2002) -- An agreement between the Anglican Church and the federal government over liability for Indian Residential Schools will allow the church to continue to serve society and to forge new bonds with native people, the Anglican Primate says.
In a letter to church members posted on the Anglican Church of Canada's Web site, Archbishop Michael Peers says he is "profoundly encouraged" by the way Canadian Anglicans and Anglican dioceses have responded to the agreement.
Under the terms of the agreement, all 30 Anglican dioceses must ratify and agree to contribute $25 million to a settlement fund over a five-year period.
The agreement effectively ends the Anglican Church's involvement in costly litigation that was threatening the future of its national organization.
The text of Archbishop Peers' letter follows:
The past few weeks have marked a watershed in the life of the Anglican Church of Canada. Beginning with the announcement of an agreement with the Government of Canada as to how validated claims of sexual and physical abuse in Indian Residential Schools would be apportioned, we are now in a period of discernment and decision together. In each diocese, a process is, or will be, in place to decide the diocesan response to our national responsibility.
Let me offer some background and interpretation for this time of discernment and decision in dioceses and congregations, and for your own reflection as an Anglican and a member of Christ's body.
From 1820 to 1969, the Anglican Church of Canada was involved in residential schools. In 1911, the first contracts were signed between the Government of Canada and a number of dioceses. In 1921, the Missionary Society of the Church in Canada began to assume those contracts. In the words of the Bishop of Keewatin [David Ashdown], a person with experience of the schools decades ago and a partner in dialogue with many former students, this was not a good system with a few bad people in it, but a deeply flawed system with many good people in it. In 1969 we abandoned participation in the schools, and began to forge a new relationship with aboriginal Canadians that would be rooted in justice, solidarity, and mutuality.
More than twenty years later, former students of the schools began to come forward, alleging abuse at the hands of those in authority in the schools. Those allegations have prompted our church to come to terms with two painful realities. First, our partnership with the government in seeking the assimilation of aboriginal Canadians was itself a profound error. Second, some within the schools used their power to take advantage of the vulnerability of children.
Rowan Williams, the Archbishop of Canterbury, defines "remorse" as the discovery that we do not control the telling of our stories -- that we play unflattering and sometimes destructive roles in the stories of others. In the stories of aboriginal Canadians, we hear that our actions were not noble and our impact was not life-saving.
Remorse is hard for us. We did not intend to collaborate in undermining the well being of children. We did not intend to foster a climate in which predators could assault the vulnerable. We did not intend to contribute to a rift between aboriginal and non-aboriginal Canadians. Yet we did all those things.
In 1969, we embraced another way of understanding and telling the story of our relationship with indigenous peoples. Together with them, we began to look for a better way. In the past decades, signs of that better way have begun to emerge. For example, the report of the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples identifies a unique and vital contribution that the churches can make: "Of all the non-governmental institutions in Canadian society, religious institutions have perhaps the greatest potential to foster awareness and understanding between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people".
In November , the Anglican Church of Canada and the Government of Canada reached an agreement on a settlement of validated claims of sexual and physical abuse in schools administered by the Anglican Church. We are asking each diocese to consider the proposed agreement, and to make a financial commitment to the settlement fund. The proposed settlement with the Government of Canada allows us to proceed with integrity along "a better way". We have not evaded our responsibility within the legal structures and systems that our nation has established to deal with such claims. We have acknowledged both our part in the damage that was done and the many good and generous people who -- in a deeply flawed arrangement -- acted humanely. We are involved in significant explorations with the indigenous constituencies of the Anglican Church of Canada as to how we can, together, live up to the potential identified in the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples.
It was "our people" -- people who share with us a faith, and a tradition -- who suffered in the residential schools. In the Anglican Church of Canada, there are whole dioceses in which the majority of our members are aboriginal Canadians. As we continue the hard work of fashioning a church that brings us all together for mission, we can bear witness to the possibility of reconciliation in a nation in which the divide between aboriginal persons and communities and the dominant culture seems to widen with each passing year.
This settlement is not about "getting out" of anything. It is instead a way of getting more deeply into the healing and reconciliation by which we can both strengthen our own common life and extend that life into mission in our own society.
I am profoundly encouraged by the way in which dioceses and their members have begun to address the challenge before us. Several dioceses have already ratified the agreement, and the others have a clear process in mind for coming to a decision. At least four of the dioceses that have ratified the agreement had no formal relationship with any of the schools, and therefore no legal liability. That we recognize both a common "moral liability" and a common vocation to ministry and mission in our society, whether or not we are directly and legally affected by the schools issue, is surely one of the strengths of this Anglican Church of Canada.
In the months and years ahead, I believe we can use that strength to serve our society and all its members. Because we bear witness not only to the deep flaws of our past, but also to the deep need for healing and reconciliation in our present, we are poised to contribute to a crucial process of discernment for a Canadian society in search of a humane future. Because we are entering more deeply into the spirit of partnership between aboriginal and non-aboriginal persons and communities within our church, we are poised to contribute to the emergence of a similar sense of partnership within Canadian society as a whole.
For reasons of our common life, and for reasons of our common mission within Canadian society, I profoundly hope that we will all be able not only to support and contribute to this settlement, but also to celebrate the possibilities it opens up for us all.
Yours faithfully, Michael G. Peers Archbishop and Primate
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Contact: Vianney (Sam) Carriere, Acting Director Communications, 416-924-9199 ext. 306, firstname.lastname@example.org OR Michael Thompson, Principal Secretary to the Primate, 416-924-9199 ext. 277, email@example.com; www.anglican.ca
"For three years now, we, the Anglican Church of Canada, have had an agreement with the federal government covering lawsuits about Indian residential schools that, until not that long ago, threatened our very existence. What that agreement did was limit our liability to $25 million. A Settlement Fund was created and we, General Synod and each of the 30 dioceses, agreed to raise $25 million over five years for the fund .... The 2003 agreement was imperfect (p. 3). .... The new agreement is still an agreement in principle. The process for all the bodies that need to give the new agreement their blessing is going to take a while and until that process is complete, we must continue to make payments to the Settlement Fund under the terms of the 2003 agreement. The silver lining here, though, is that these payments are money that will be refunded into our Anglican Fund for Healing and Reconciliation, once the 2006 agreement comes into force -- we hope by the end of the year (p. 10)."
Contents: Where are we ? -- First things first -- So what happened to bring about this new agreement ? -- ... and so -- A renewed commitment.
TORONTO (Feb. 10, 2003) -- The last of 30 dioceses of the Anglican Church of Canada have now ratified an agreement with the federal government which caps the church's liability in residential schools litigation at $25-million.
Completing a process that began last November , the 30 dioceses have unanimously approved the agreement and unanimously agreed to contribute to the settlement fund it creates. Each diocese was required to sign on to the agreement before it could come into effect. At a series of special meetings and synods held since last December  all agreed to do so, many without a dissenting vote.
The last dioceses to vote were Fredericton and Calgary this past weekend. Eastern Newfoundland and Labrador had earlier approved the agreement in principle and confirmed the decision this weekend. Because of time zones, Calgary's officially became the final ratification vote.
The Canadian Anglican Church has also announced the formation of a separate corporation, called the Anglican Church of Canada Resolution Corp., which will administer the settlement fund under the terms of the agreement.
Under the agreement, 30 per cent of compensation will be paid from the settlement fund to former residential schools students who have proven claims of sexual or physical abuse. The remaining 70 per cent will be paid by the federal government.
If compensation for these claims eventually exceeds $25-million, the federal government will pay the rest, and should awards fall short of the amount, the money will be returned to the dioceses.
Canadian dioceses made individual decisions on how they would find the money to contribute their share to the settlement fund.
In the diocese of Toronto, for instance, Archbishop Terry Finlay asked each Anglican to contribute $100 in order to raise $5-million. Athabasca in Alberta is selling an archdeacon's residence to raise $125,000. Other dioceses dipped into reserves or decided to mount capital campaigns to cover both contributions to the settlement fund and other local projects.
Diocese were asked to contribute to the settlement fund according to a formula similar to the one used to determine their contributions to the national church.
In total, Canadian dioceses were called on to contribute $22-million and that goal has been met. General Synod, the national embodiment of the church, will make up the remaining $3-million.
The agreement was intended to move litigation over residential schools out of the courts and into a form of alternate dispute resolution. The large number of lawsuits was taking a long time in the legal system and the process was costing vast amounts of money, to the point where the General Synod of the Anglican Church was facing bankruptcy.
The details of a process to keep claims out of the courts (alternative dispute resolution) have yet to be finalized. Archdeacon Jim Boyles, General Secretary of General Synod and the chief Anglican negotiator with the federal government, said at the time the agreement was announced on Nov. 20  that it would allow the church to use its resources to do what it does best -- minister to people who were harmed in the schools and work at healing and reconciliation -- rather than use them up in legal fees.
After this weekend's finalization of the ratification process, Archdeacon Boyles said that he was "very pleased with the way dioceses have responded so quickly and so positively to the agreement. It shows the strength of the Anglican family in Canada".
With the last of the ratification votes, the formal documents will now be sent to the dioceses for signing, Archdeacon Boyles explained. Once the documents have been signed by the dioceses, representatives of the Anglican Church and the Government of Canada will formally sign the official agreement.
A tentative date of March 11  has been set for the formal signing by Archbishop Michael Peers, the Anglican Primate, and federal Public Works Minister Ralph Goodale, in charge of residential schools resolution. The signing will likely take place at the Anglican national office in Toronto.
The Anglican church was involved, with the federal government, in operating 26 of 80 residential schools from the mid-19th century until the 1970s when the church ended its involvement. In 1993, Archbishop Peers formally apologized to native people for the church's involvement in the schools.
That the Council of General Synod urge the government of Canada, and specifically the Office of Indian Residential Schools Resolution, to take seriously the concerns raised by Aboriginal Peoples as it designs its alternative dispute resolution processes and the accompanying releases. CARRIED UNANIMOUSLY #27-05-03
The resolution and the fact that it was carried unanimously will be conveyed to Mario Dion (who has replaced Jack Stagg as Deputy Minister of the Office of Indian Residential Schools Resolution.)
OTTAWA (June 6) -- The 300-member General Synod of the Anglican Church of Canada responded enthusiastically to a report commending further work on the process of healing and reconciliation for former students of Native residential schools.
General Synod, meeting in Ottawa this week, heard a summary of the work done by a Residential Schools Working Group created three years ago by the Anglican Church to address the needs of Aboriginal people who suffered physical, emotional, sexual and cultural abuse in the government-funded schools. Between 1820 and 1969 hundreds of thousands of Aboriginal children were placed in residential schools administered by Christian denominations.
The Residential Schools Working Group recommended to General Synod that its work, which has included the development of educational resources, government submissions and grants for support programs for victims of abuse, continue under the auspices of the church's Council for Native Ministries, whose members are Native Anglicans.
Angeline Ayoungman, co-chair of the working group, said the church must work to continue the healing which began at the Native Convocation in 1993, when Archbishop Michael Peers, Primate of the Anglican Church of Canada, apologized to Aboriginal peoples on behalf of the church.
"We've come a long way, but we have a long way to go before the healing and reconciliation is complete," said Ms Ayoungman. She said it may take several generations before the impact of residential schools, manifested in high levels of alcoholism, drug abuse and suicide among native communities, can be fully resolved.
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Contact: Sam Carriere or Lorie Chortyk, Media Relations, General Synod. News Room: (613) 788-2600 ext. 2040 Cellular (613) 720-1468
TORONTO (March 5, 2003) -- Representatives of the federal government and the Anglican Church of Canada will officially sign an agreement on residential schools lawsuits, reached last November, at the church's national office next Tuesday, March 11 .
The agreement, announced in Ottawa on Nov. 20, establishes a Settlement Fund to which the church will contribute $25-million and which will be used to compensate former students of residential schools with proven claims of sexual or physical abuse.
It will be formally signed 9:30 a.m. Tuesday at the Anglican Church's national office at 600 Jarvis Street in Toronto. It comes into effect on March 15 .
Before being signed, the agreement had to be ratified by each of the church's 30 dioceses. The dioceses also had to agree to commit a total of $22-million over the next five years to a settlement fund. General Synod, the Anglican Church's national organization, contributed $3-million.
The dioceses concluded the ratification process last month and the goal of $22-million in contributions was met, with most dioceses contributing a percentage of their budget similar to the amount given annually to General Synod. Although the agreement requires the dioceses to pay into the Settlement Fund in quarterly installments over the next five years, several dioceses have said they will pay the full amount immediately.
If compensation amounts to more than $25-million, the federal government will pay the rest. It is less, the extra money will be returned to the dioceses.
Signing on behalf of the church at Tuesday's ceremony will be Archbishop Michael Peers, the Anglican Primate, and federal Public Works Minister Ralph Goodale, whose portfolio includes responsibility for residential schools resolution.
Archdeacon Jim Boyles, General Secretary of General Synod and the chief Anglican negotiator during talks with the federal government, said the church wanted to have the signing at its national office so that General Synod staff who have worked under circumstances of extreme uncertainty for the past three years could attend and witness the signing.
Also attending the signing ceremony will be representatives of both the Anglican and government negotiating teams who worked for several years before an agreement was reached.
The Anglican Church was involved, with the federal government, in operating 26 residential schools from the mid-19th century until the 1970s. In 1993, Archbishop Peers formally apologized to native people for the church's involvement in the schools.
The Anglican Church was named in about 2,200 of more than 12,000 lawsuits launched against the federal government.
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Contact: For more information, please contact Vianney (Sam) Carriere, Acting Director of Communications, 416-924-9199 ext. 306; 416-540-3653 (Cell); firstname.lastname@example.org OR
Archdeacon Jim Boyles, General Secretary of General Synod, 416-924-9199 ext. 280; email@example.com