"Thank you to Reverend Laura Marie Piotrowicz for writing this Advent Resource for The Primate's World Relief and Development Fund". -- inside back cover.
"This Advent The Primate's World Relief and Development Fund (PWRDF) invites you to take a few moments each day to reflect on what is feeding you through this busy time. We encourage you to slow down and enter into prayerful consideration of the meaning of the season. We invite you to join us in these Advent Reflections which encourage thought on issues on food security. Each Sunday we will connect the weekly Gospel theme with a PWRDF good news story. Monday through Saturday we offer reflections on those themes within the contexts of a feast and of local realities. We will then enter into prayer and encourage your own spiritual challenges." -- p. 3.
Contents: The Feast: Reflections for the Season of Advent 2012 -- Advent 1: Planning -- Advent 2: Preparing -- Advent 3: Inviting -- Advent 4: Serving.
Contents include four "PWRDF good news stories": [From Haiti] A Growing Balcony / Simon Chambers -- [From Bangladesh] Seeds of Hope and Joy / Denise Hambidge -- [From Tanzania] Clean Water Improves Health and Lives in Tanzania / Simon Chambers -- Archbishop Hiltz Visits PWRDF Project in Solomon Islands / Simon Chambers.
"Thank you to Reverend Laura Marie Piotrowicz for writing this Lent Resource for The Primate's World Relief and Development Fund". -- inside back cover.
"This Lent PWRDF invites you to take a few moments each day to reflect upon the meaning behind your fast. We encourage you to slow down and enter into prayerful consideration of the physical and spiritual benefits of fasting. We invite you to join us in these Lenten Reflections which encourage thought on issues on food security. Each Sunday we will connect the weekly Gospel theme with a PWRDF good news story. Monday through Saturday we offer reflections on those themes within the context of a fast and of local realities. We will then enter into prayer and encourage your own spiritual challenges." -- p. 5.
Contents: The Fast: Reflections for the Season of Lent, 2013 -- Ash Wednesday: The Fast Begins -- Lent 1: Temptation -- Lent 2: Self-Denial -- Lent 3: Repentance -- Lent 4: Generosity -- Lent 5: Poverty -- Palm Sunday: Journeying.
Contents include seven "PWRDF good news stories": The Best $2 / Simon Chambers -- Half a Million People Receive Help Through PWRDF/CIDA Joint Effort / Simon Chambers -- Grocery Shopping / Simon Chambers -- Reflection / Adele Finney -- Relief and Reconstruction in Haiti / Simon Chambers -- Saving Livelihoods in the Sahel / Simon Chambers -- Running in his Grandmother's Footsteps / Christine Hills.
"Change is hard. It doesn't matter who you are, where you live, or what you do. Farmers in Sri Lanka have been buying seeds from agricultural companies and using chemical fertilizers and pesticides for generations. PWRDF works with the Movement for National Land and Agricultural Reform (MONLAR) to support community based groups of 10-12 farmers working with organic and ecological techniques to lower their costs, diversify their crops, and increase their income. This work is difficult because they're trying to change generations of practice. The best way they have found, is to work with local farmers who are open to change, and encourage them to be champions of the new farming methods. S.T. Chandrika is a widow raising four children. She owns about an acre of land, and used it primarily to raise cash vegetable crops. After meeting a MONLAR field staff member, she began to adopt ecological and organic farming techniques and to grow a wider variety of vegetables. 'I now have nutritious and poison-free food. I grow lots of different vegetables that are better than what is available at the market', she says. She continues to sell fruits and vegetables at the local market, as well as growing two commercial crops per year. 'Organic farming is more work than chemical farming. But it's worth it. I get more produce, it costs less, and I make more profit'. With champions like Ms. Chandrika, organic farming continues to grow in communities across Sri Lanka". [Text of entire article.]
"A conference hosted by the Canadian Council of Churches and the World Council of Churches that ran from November 2-4  in Toronto, Ont., aimed to address new technologies and examine the ethics of the field of 'synthetic biology'" (p. 6). Drew Endy, a bioengineering professor "Researchers like [bioengineering professor Drew] Endy have been exploring ways to manipulate the genes of living organisms in a laboratory setting, raising the possibility that any product that can be naturally derived from a plant can now be created artificially, which could have an enormous effect on the food industry, agriculture and medicine. Conversely, [technology critic Jim] Thomas, a former Greenpeace activist, expressed a greater concern for the effects of this genetic manipulation. 'Is life something here for humans to engineers ? Is that a morally OK thing to do ?'" (p. 6). "National Indigenous Anglican Bishop Mark MacDonald, who participated on a conference panel concerning the ethics and faith response to synthetic biology, voiced support of regulation, but cautioned that 'regulation, in itself', is not enough'. .... These technologies, he said, raise questions about 'our spiritual formation in the dominant culture -- the culture of money'" (p. 6). Nnimmo Bassey, director of Health of Mother Earth Foundation in Nigeria, said: "I believe that this technology will open the door to a very vicious form of colonialism" (p. 10). Panelist Lucy Sharratt, co-ordinator of the Canadian Biotechnology Action Network, noted that: "Injustice is the real reason people don't have food" (p. 10).
"James 2:15-17. 'If a brother or sister is naked and lacks daily food, and one you says to them,"Go in peace; keep warm and eat your fill", and yet you do not supply their bodily needs, what is the good of that ? So faith by itself, if it has no works, is dead'." "We should consider James' words and understand that our souls are fed as we act out our faith, as we move from 'Do you believe ?' to 'What are you going to do about it ?' Through PWRDF, what we are going to do about it is to work with communities around the world. To work with fishers and farmers as they ensure that they have enough to eat, just like fishers in Canada do. James gives us direction, and moves us from apathy to awareness. We must act on our faith, ensuring that no one suffers from hunger; because as he says, faith by itself, it it has no works is dead".
That this Council of General Synod approve and adopt the following motions referred to the Council of General Synod by the General Synod, 2007:
A211, A220, A221, A225, A250, A251, A252, A253, C001, C006, and refer C007 to the House of Bishops.
APPROVED BY CONSENSUS #15-05-08
[Text of resolutions:
A211: Food and Agriculture
That this General Synod:
Request the Ecojustice Committee (or its successor) in the course of the 2007-2010 triennium
- to encourage and facilitate the study and support in The Anglican Church of Canada of public policies which foster:
-- the human right to food, and
-- just and sustainable food systems.
- to explore, with PWRDF, a relationship with the Canadian Foodgrains Bank as partners in this work.
A220: Anglican-Orthodox Relations
That this General Synod welcome the publication of the work of the International Commission for Anglican Orthodox Theological Dialogue “The Cyprus Statement: The Church of the Triune God”, commend it for study in the church, and express its thanks to the members of the Commission and especially to the Rev’d Canon Dr. John Gibaut of St. Paul University in Ottawa for his contribution to this important ecumenical endeavour.
A221: Codes of Ethics
That this General Synod affirm the ‘Guide to Codes of Ethics for those Authorized to Practice Ministry in the Anglican Church of Canada’ and commend it to dioceses, encouraging each of them to develop a code of ethics for ministry.
The Guide is in Appendix B of the Report to General Synod by the Faith Worship and Ministry Committee.
FAITH, WORSHIP AND MINISTRY REPORT TO GENERAL SYNOD, JUNE 2007
APPENDIX B: Codes of Ethics
WE WILL, WITH GOD’S HELP:
A Guide to Codes of Ethics for those authorized to practice ministry in the Anglican Church of Canada
General Synod 2004 directed the Faith, Worship and Ministry Committee to produce a guide for dioceses to assist them in the development of a code of ethics and standards of practice for lay and clergy engaged in ministry in the Anglican Church of Canada. In this guide, the Committee sets out scriptural and theological foundations for ministry ethics and directs those concerned to areas which should be covered in any locally-developed code. The guide also contains a suggested process for formulating ethics codes, along with a list of existing resources which dioceses could adapt for their own use, tailoring them to meet their own local needs and situations.
By adopting this guide, the Anglican Church of Canada affirms our insistence upon appropriate conduct among all those who minister in our church, lay and ordained, and further declares that:
A Ministry Code of Ethics:
- Is rooted in our baptismal and ordination vows.
- Is grounded in scriptural perspectives.
- Adheres to Christian doctrine.
1. ROOTED IN BAPTISMAL and ORDINATION VOWS:
“So natural is the union of Religion with Justice, that we may boldly deny there is either, where both are not.” Richard Hooker, Of the Laws of Ecclesiastical Polity, V, 1.2.
As Anglicans we place a high value on justice. We all promise at baptism to “strive for justice and peace among all people, and respect the dignity of every human being (BAS, p. 159).” Those in ordained ministry promise to pattern their lives after Christ’s teachings (deacons and presbyters) and “be merciful to all, show compassion to the poor and strangers and defend those who have no helper” (bishops, BAS, p. 637). We make these promises before God and each other and call upon God to help us keep them. Love of God and neighbour means extending fair treatment and ethical conduct to all whom we encounter in every aspect of ministry, whether lay or ordained, formal or informal, within church buildings or without.
Wherever the church’s ministers live out our ministry, opportunities arise to do great good or great harm. The high degree of trust that people have in the church’s ministers often encourages them to reveal deeply sensitive and important aspects of their lives, making them more vulnerable and less alert to boundary violations than they would otherwise be. At the same time, those to whom such trust, authority and power are given may use them inappropriately, blind to their own wrongdoing. Knowing ahead of time how to avoid and/or handle risky situations keeps the vulnerable safe, the ministers trustworthy and the effective integrity of God’s church intact.
A code of ethics grounds the ministry process in Holy Scripture and Christian doctrine. In its more specific applications, it provides a code of conduct giving particular direction and setting out particular procedures if violations occur. A code of ethics for ministry is not a comprehensive handbook of good ministry practice in all its dimensions; rather, it focuses on the standards of conduct which must exist if personal ministry relationships are to be responsibly loving and pastorally just.
The need for ethical standards in ministry is based as much on the inevitability of human error as it is on the inevitability of human confusion. We make our baptismal and ordination vows in a context of community prayer and celebration. We keep them, or not, in a complexity of community need, conflict and power imbalance.
Ethical reflection is neither a theological luxury nor a managerial burden in these circumstances, it is a pastoral necessity. It enables us to respond appropriately and in practical ways to both God’s calling and our promises. This is not easy work, so it is not remarkable that we need God’s help in doing it. As Francis Bridger states in the 2003 Church of England ethics guidelines, “We . . . are sustained in ministry by the activity of God in us. Ministerial codes or guidelines may set the boundaries, but only by grace can we live them out.”
2. BASED IN SCRIPTURE:
“This is my commandment, that you love one another as I have loved you.” Jn15:12 (NRSV).
As Anglicans we agree with Christian ethicists Bruce Birch and Larry Rasmussen when they say that Holy Scripture is “to be taken seriously in all ethical reflection within the church.” The ethics of Christian ministry begin with the teachings of the Bible. Most of us point to the Ten Commandments and the Summary of the Law as divinely derived mandates for all human behavior and relationships, guides in all our doings. Both Hebrew Scripture and the New Testament contain numerous injunctions and provisions about behavior, many of which have a particular relevance in their application to codes of ethics for ministry. It is important, however, to think of Scripture in ethics, rather than ethics in Scripture. In other words, we seek the biblical perspective in the context of both historical and current worshipping communities rather than proof-texting for rules.
Ethics professor and Episcopalian Stephen Holmgren offers a way to search for biblical perspectives with his description of how Scripture is a mirror, a restraint and a map for Christian ethics. Scripture reflects our actions back to us and gives us an image of righteousness with which to compare our own deeds. Psalm 15: 2-4 provides such an image:
Those who walk blamelessly, and do what is right,
And speak the truth from their heart;
Who do not slander with their tongue
And do no evil to their friends,
Nor take up a reproach against their neighbours;
In whose eyes the wicked are despised,
But who honor those who fear the Lord;
Who stand by their oath even to their hurt; (NRSV)
The prophet Amos also gives us a looking glass with which to bring ourselves into conformity with God’s will for us, “Seek good and not evil, that you may live; and so the Lord, the God of hosts, will be with you, just as you have said. Hate evil and love good, and establish justice in the gate;” (Amos 5: 14-15, NRSV).
As a restraint, Scripture provides several lists of do’s and don’ts, the Ten Commandments being the major example. But Scripture is more than a catalogue of prohibitions. Paul, for example, urges continual self-discipline and self-evaluation. “Examine yourselves to see whether you are living in the faith. Test yourselves. . . . “ (2 Cor. 13:5a, NRSV). The First Letter of Peter likewise offers caution, specifically to those in ministry leadership. “Do not lord it over those in your charge, but be examples to the flock . . . . And all of you must clothe yourselves with humility in your dealings with one another. . . . “ (1 Pet. 5: 3, 5b, NRSV).
Scripture presents broad ethical guidance in its capacity as a map. The Summary of the Law (Mk. 12: 28-31) provides the basic coordinates: love of God and love of neighbour. Jesus’ consistent attention to the poor, the marginalized and the vulnerable are all the compass points in between those coordinates. Our behavior toward the least among us, the location where much of our ministry takes place, is the measure of our relationship with Christ (Mt. 25: 37-40).
This is by no means a complete list of Scriptural indicators in the search for ethical foundations. However, it provides a sufficient overview to reinforce the assurance that Scripture undergirds all of our ministry efforts, including the ethical principles which order them.
3. ADHERES TO CHRISTIAN DOCTRINE
“The quest for ethical wisdom is the moral dimension of our life together” Rev. Alla Renee Bozarth, "Womanpriest: a personal odyssey", p. 141.
Theology and ethics are more than abstract academic topics. In concrete and practical ways, Christians engage in them all the time. First Nations authors Paul Schultz and George Tinker define theology as “people talking about what they are doing when they pray.” Christian ethics, then, is people talking about what they are doing, period. When ministry is the context for theological and ethical reflection, as it is in the preparation of a code or guide, several Christian doctrines and ethical concepts are particularly relevant.
The doctrine of human nature holds that humans are created in the image of God. This means that humans as moral actors are to keep their actions in line with God’s mandate to be holy as God is holy (Lev. 11.45). It also means that we view each person we encounter as bearing the same image of God we do. This doctrine also acknowledges that, although fallen short of the divine ideal, we have the continuous responsibility to live into it. Holiness in ministry means that respect, thoughtfulness and love are part of our every act.
The doctrine of salvation explains how our human fallen-ness is not a permanent barrier to our doing good because of Christ’s saving action in history and in each individual life. A new self is ours, “which is being renewed in knowledge according to the image of its creator. . . . In that renewal . . . Christ is all and in all.” (Col. 3: 10-11, NRSV). We are capable of acting appropriately, with God’s help and Christ’s saving power in our lives.
The theology of forgiveness also enters into the preparation of ethical codes because it reminds us to include provision for reconciliation when mistakes occur. Recent church history tells us that impropriety, especially involving sexual misconduct in pastoral situations, has been a blight on church life in some places. Putting matters right involves not just restitution, but rehabilitation and the opportunity for a repentant wrongdoer’s re-entry into the community.
The theology and ethics of virtue also have a bearing on ministry behavior standards. Christian virtues are those character traits consistent with the Christian life. In the New Testament, faith, hope and love stand out as named virtues, but in the field of ministry we can add justice, respect, humility and trustworthiness. Reference to and definition of virtuous conduct can provide a positive foundation for ministry ethics codes and transform them from a list of regulations into a means of deepening ministry formation.
MINISTRY AREAS REQUIRING ETHICAL GUIDELINES
1. PASTORAL CARE AND COUNSELLING:
- Definitions and clarifications about appropriate interpersonal boundaries Confidentiality standards
- Power differential understanding
- Human sexuality awareness - advisable to require training in abuse prevention
- Knowledge of competence limits - when to make referrals
- Definitions of conflict of interest and when to declare them
- Compliance with requirements of civil law and criminal law
2. FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY:
- Personal loans from parishioners - set dollar amount limit or prohibit altogether
- Compliance with tax and pension rules
- Standards for charging fees
- Define appropriate non-monetary remuneration
- Advise on personal debt management
- Policy for being heir and/or executor of parishioners’ estates
3. EMPLOYMENT PRACTICES:
- Fairness in hiring or appointing
- Workplace propriety and safety
- Fair compensation for staff
- Treatment of volunteers
- Clarity of tasks for partially- or non-stipendiary clergy
- Clear job descriptions
- Periodic evaluations
- Fulfillment of continuing education obligations
- Self-care, emotional and physical
- Care for family
- Substance abuse avoidance
6. ADMINISTRATIVE INTEGRITY:
- Responsible organization and record keeping
- Task follow-through
- Reasonable delegation
- Honesty and truth-telling
7. EMPOWERMENT OF OTHERS’ MINISTRIES:
- Sharing appropriate information with appropriate laity
- Sharing tasks and responsibilities
- Making education opportunities available for others
8. COLLEGIALITY AND COOPERATION:
- Clear process in place for consideration of call to another parish
- Canonical obedience
- Representing the church in the community
- Support and respect for other pastors
- Behavior after leaving one parish for another or at retirement
SUGGESTED DIOCESAN PROCESS TO MAXIMIZE LOCAL DESIGN, RELEVANCE AND OWNERSHIP
1. Identify a committed working group, e.g., clergy, laity, ethicist, lawyer, teacher, counsellor, physician, nurse social worker
2. Convene the group and ask them first to consider prayerfully the biblical, theological and practical underpinnings for a code of ministry ethics.
3. Ask them next to consider the mission and vision of the diocese.
4. Identify and state why an ethics code is important to the diocese.
5. Consider how the code can reflect the character of the diocese, keeping in mind especially the needs and protocols of other cultures. For example, some First Nations have cleansing feasts or other methods to reintegrate an offender back into the community.
6. Consider adapting and/or adopting a code in use by another diocese.
7. Frame the consequences of misconduct clearly. Some may want to include them in diocesan canons. It may be advisable to sequence violations with warnings, temporary removal, rehabilitation requirements, permanent removal, loss of license.
8. Make ample and clear provisions for pastoral care for all parties involved in alleged code violations.
9. Allow time for diocesan consultation with lay and ordained ministers.
10. Consider language clarity and accessibility.
11. Provide educational workshops for clergy, staff and volunteers.
12. Provide a method of ratification and periodic review and revision of the code.
Make assent to the code’s provisions a requirement for ordination and licensing.
 Anglican Church of Canada, General Synod 2004, Resolution A-171.
 Bridger, Francis, Guidelines for the Professional Conduct of the Clergy, London, Church House Publishing, 2003, p. 20.
 Birch, Bruce and Larry Rasmussen., Bible and Ethics in the Christian Life, Minneapolis, Augsburg, 1989, p. 154.
 Nashotah House, now rector of Grace Church, St. Francisville, La.
 Holmgren, Stephen, Ethics After Easter, The New Church’s Teaching Series, Vol. 9, Boston, Cowley, 2000, p. 73.
 Schultz, Paul and George Tinker, “Rivers of Life: Native Spirituality for Native Churches,” in Treat, James, ed., Native and Christian: indigenous voices on religious identity in the United States and Canada, New York: Routledge, 1996, p. 58.
 Porter, Jean, “Virtue ethics,” in Gill, Robin, ed., The Cambridge Companion to Christian Ethics, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001, p. 99.
Allison, N. E. “The professional and boundary issues,” Christian Ethics Today, 1997.
Antal, James. Considering a New Call: ethical and spiritual challenges for clergy. Alban Institute, 2000.
American Association of Pastoral Counsellors Code of Ethics, www.aapc.org/ethics.htm
Anglican Diocese of Caledonia, Protecting God’s People.
Anglican Diocese of Huron Code of Sexual Ethics and Professional Conduct: Our Sacred Trust
Anglican Diocese of Montreal Code of Ethics for Clergy
Anglican Diocese of New Westminster Code of Ethics
Bayles, M. Professional ethics, second ed., (Bellmont, Ca.: Woodsworth Publishing), 1989.
Boyajian, J. A. Ethical Issues in the Practice of Ministry. (Nashville: Abingdon Press), 1984.
Canadian Association for Pastoral Practice and Education/association Canadienne pour la Prarique et l’Education Pastorales Code of Ethics and Professional Conduct
Church of England, Convocations of Canterbury and York, Guidelines for the Professional Conduct of the Clergy, www.c-of-e.org.uk
Disciples of Christ Ministerial Code of Ethics http://www.ucc.org/ministers/manual/MOM%2001%20Partners.pdf
ELCIC, Discipline of Rostered Ministers http://www.elcic.ca/docs/04discipline.htmlExpectations: Ordained Ministers of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Canada
Fortune, Marie Is Nothing Sacred? When Sex Invades the Pastoral Relationship, San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1989.
Grenz, Stanley J. The Moral Quest: Foundations of Christian Ethics, Leicester: Apollos, 1997.
Gula, Richard M. Ethics in Pastoral Ministry. New York: Paulist Press, 1996.
Gula, Richard M., “The Wisdom of Boundaries: Power and Vulnerability in Ministry,” in Keenan, James and Joseph Kotva, eds. Practice What you Preach: Virtues, Ethics and Power in the Lives of Pastoral Ministers and Their Congregations. (Franklin, Wi.: Sheed and Ward), 1999.
Hopkins, Nancy Myer, “Re-thinking Sexual Misconduct: a response to Jonathan Sams,” Congregations, July-August, 1996.
Jung, Shannon and Patricia Beattie Jung, “Leadership in Empowering Others: A case study from Rural Congregations/Parishes,” in Keenan and Kotva.
Kotva, Joseph J. The Christian Case for Virtue Ethics, Washington DC: Georgetown University Press, 1996.
Lebacqz, Karen and Joseph D. Driskill, Ethics and Spiritual Care, Nashville: Abingdon Press 2000.
Lebacqz, Karen Professional Ethics: Power and Paradox, Nashville: Abingdon Press, 1985.
Lebacqz, Karen and Ronald G. Barton, Sex in the Parish, Louisville: Westminster/ John Knox Press, 1991.
McCann, Dennis P., “Costing Discipleship: Clergy Ethics in a Commercial Civilization,” in Wind, James P, J. Russell Burck, Paul Camenish, and Dennis McCann, eds.,
Clergy Ethics in a Changing Society: Mapping the Terrain, (Louisville: Westminster/John Knox Press), 1991.
Mead, Loren and Richard Ullman, “Clergy Ethics: a discussion-starter for clergy colleague groups The Alban Institute, 18:1.
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Reasons, J. A. The Biblical Concept of Integrity and Professional Codes of Ethics in Ministerial Ethics. Ph.D. dissertation, Southwestern Baptist Theological Seminary, 1990.
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Robinson, Simon J. Agape, Moral Meaning and Pastoral Counselling, Cardiff: Aureus Publishing, 2001.
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Sams, Jonathan C., “Clergy Sexual Ethics: a new Puritanism?” Congregations, July-August, 1996.
Trull, J. E. and J. E. Carter. Ministerial Ethics: Being a Good Minister in a Not-so-good World. (Nashville: Broadman and Holman), 1993.
United Church of Canada, Draft Standards of Practice and Ethical Standards for Ministry Personnel, January, 2005. (currently being revised)
United Church of Christ, US – Manual on Ministry, The Ordained Minister’s Code (pg 14f) , http://www.ucc.org/ministers/manual/MOM%2001%20Partners.pdf
Wiest, Walter E. and Elwyn A. Smith, Ethics in Ministry: A Guide for the Professional, Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1990.
A225: Inter-Faith Education and Dialogue
That this General Synod encourage the Anglican Church of Canada to engage in inter-faith education and dialogue at the local level, ecumenically wherever possible, and direct the Faith Worship and Ministry Committee to advise the church on available resources.
A250: Companion Diocese Relationships
That this General Synod, in agreement with Resolution II.3 of the 1998 Lambeth Conference, urge all Canadian dioceses to have made a serious effort to identify one or more dioceses as a companion, in formal and informal ways, across provincial boundaries, by the time of the next Lambeth Conference in 2008.
A251: Sri Lanka
1. Request the Primate of the Anglican Church of Canada to write to the Bishop of the Diocese of Colombo, the Bishop of the Diocese of Kurunegala, Church of Ceylon, and the Church’s Metropolitan, the Archbishop of Canterbury, to express:
- Affirmation of the bonds of fellowship we share as Anglicans with the clergy and people of Sri Lanka;
- Solidarity with Anglicans, other Christians and peoples of other faiths in Sri Lanka in their struggle for peace with justice and true reconciliation;
- Commitment to active prayer, education, and advocacy concerning the escalating violence and impunity in Sri Lanka, and the worsening humanitarian crisis in the North and East.
2. Request the Government of Canada to:
- Lead the international community toward permanent cease-fire, authentic mediation and a negotiated political settlement between the Government of Sri Lanka, the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam, and the TMVP (Karuna Faction in the East);
- Urge all parties in the conflict to respect the human rights of those made most vulnerable by the conflict, especially children and women, and to participate fully in efforts of the Presidential Commission of Inquiry into Alleged Serious Violations of Human Rights (September 2006), and the International Independent Group of Eminent Persons (IIGEP) ensuring that “international standards” of discovery and jurisprudence are met
- Advocate immediate international intervention into the humanitarian crises in the North and East.
3. Appeal to Canadian Anglicans to stand in solidarity with the people of Sri Lanka through prayer, writing to their respective Members of Parliament, and engaging in activities that raise awareness about the situation of Sri Lanka, especially in the North and East.
4. Request the Partners in Mission Committee and the EcoJustice Committee (or their successor) and the PWRDF Board to:
- develop resources for the above action
- organize a solidarity visit by Canadian Anglican church leaders to Sri Lanka, as timely and acceptable for the Church of Ceylon, to learn about the situation of clergy and laity in the Church of Ceylon, and of humanitarian crises, especially in the north and east, and of faith-based efforts towards lasting peace with justice.
1. Request the General Secretary to write to the Prime Minister, urging the Government of Canada to:
- Welcome the decision of the President of the Philippines to invite Professor Philip Alston, Special Rapporteur of the United Nations Human Rights Council on extrajudicial, summary or arbitrary executions to investigate the phenomenon of extrajudicial executions in the Philippines since 2001;
- Welcome the decision of the President of the Philippines to finally release to the public the report of the Melo Commission inquiry into the extrajudicial killings;
- Commend the Special Rapporteur’s Initial Report and Recommendations ( February 2007) to the Government of the Philippines towards continued investigation of extrajudicial killings and creation of legitimate political space for opposition groups, with particular focus upon the complicity of the Armed Forces of the Philippines in these killings, and the encouragement of leftist groups to enter mainstream politics;
- Commend the Melo Commission recommendation to the Government of the Philippines towards holding responsible all members and commanders in the military who carried out these killings;
- Ask Canada’s Subcommittee on International Human Rights to: a) investigate the risks for Canadian mining companies operating in the Philippines of being complicit in the political killings and other forms of human rights abuses, and b) Canada’s cooperation with the Philippines Government on trade, investment and the fight against terrorism, and the impact of our cooperation on human rights.
2. Appeal to all Canadian Anglicans to stand in solidarity through prayer and action with church partners and people of the Philippines seeking full investigation by our Government into the extrajudicial killings, which have primarily targeted human rights defenders, lawyers, social activists, journalists, peasants, and church workers since 2001.
3. Request the Partners in Mission Committee, and the PWRDF Board to continue its solidarity work with Philippine partners, and national and international ecumenical partners, towards raising awareness within Canada about how Canadian trade and investment policy, and Canada’s fight against terrorism, impact human rights in the Philippines.
A253: Darfur / Sudan
1. Request the General Secretary to write to the Prime Minister, urging the Government of Canada to persuade the world community and the United Nations to act on UN resolution 1706, dated August 31, 2006, and in particular, to:
- Ensure the transition of the current Africa Union peacekeeping mission into the proposed hybrid United Nations-Africa Union peacekeeping force mandated to protect civilians in Darfur, eastern Chad, and Central African Republic.
- Increase aid levels to the region and insist that the Government of Sudan guarantee aid delivery to humanitarian organizations and ensure unfettered access by those made most vulnerable by the conflict, especially the elderly, and women and children who have been victims of sexual violence since its onset.
- Enforce the Darfur Peace Agreement (DPA) and work for a comprehensive approach to the peace process, such as including local Arab groups, an increased role for women, and a strong focus on local conflict resolution.
- Request that all parties to the agreement, in particular the Sudanese Government, live up to their responsibilities, particularly disarming the notorious Janjaweed militias.
2. a) Appeal to all Canadian Anglicans to stand in solidarity with the peoples of Darfur by organizing vigils, writing to the Prime Minister, the Minister of Foreign Affairs, the Minister of Citizenship and Immigration, and Members of Parliament about the situation in Darfur, and engaging in activities to raise awareness in Canada regarding the plight of the peoples of Darfur and of Southern Sudan.
- b) Request the Ecojustice Committee with the PWRDF to develop resources for the above.
- c) Encourage Canadian Anglicans to meet with and learn from both Anglican and other Sudanese communities in Canada.
C001: Targets for Reducing Green House Gas Emissions
1. Call upon all Anglican churches in every diocese and all Anglicans to set targets for reducing green house gas emissions by curtailing their energy consumption.
2. Request the EcoJustice Committee (or its successor) to:
- Identify theological themes pertaining to the stewardship of creation
- Develop and promote educational resources to raise awareness in Anglican dioceses and parishes about the issue of climate change as a spiritual issue
- Identify and compile educational resources from diocesan, governmental and environmental organizations for individual churches to help them set and achieve lower green house gas emission targets.
C006: Anti-Racism Education
That this General Synod request the Primate to write the Minister of Education of each province to encourage the incorporation of anti-racism education in the existing curriculum.
C007: Anti-Racism Education
That this General Synod request the House of Bishops to add to their guidelines for ordination the requirement that candidates for ordained ministry be required to undertake anti-racism training.
a) Receive and endorse the document, "What Does God Require of Us ? A Declaration for Just Trade in the Service of An Economy of Life", its twelve Principles and corresponding Policy Implications;
b) Commend its accompanying "Plan of Action -- Just Trade Agreements ?" to the PWRDF, and the EcoJustice and Partners in Mission Committees of the Anglican Church of Canada for follow-up;
c) Request that the Primate sign a Canadian Council of Churches titular heads letter commending the Declaration to the Prime Minister;
d) Work ecumenically through KAIROS and the Canadian Council of Churches to insure that the contents of the Declaration are integrated into the Canadian churches' contribution to the Government of Canada's 2004 Foreign Policy Review;
e) Direct the EcoJustice Committee to develop a "lifestyle integrity program" as suggested in the Action Plan for use in dioceses and parishes. CARRIED Act 74
What Does God Require of Us ? : A Declaration for Just Trade in the Service of An Economy of Life
This declaration is the result of a consultation held on January 11 - 14, 2004 in Stony Point, New York, USA. We gathered as people of God coming from churches in Canada, the United States and Mexico and also from other regions of the world. We recognize that the countries we come from play different roles in the present global context in terms of their economic, political and military power. By God's grace in Christ Jesus we have come together in a community of solidarity. In this spirit, we formulated this declaration and we pledge to cooperate ecumenically for fair and just trade agreements and an economy that serves life.
We are representatives of churches
We are gathered in the name of God, who is revealed to us in the incarnation of Jesus Christ, made known to us in Scripture as the creator of the world. The Holy Spirit calls, gathers and enlightens the church to serve God's purposes in redeeming the world.
We work for just trade because of the justice of God. God's justice creates and sustains the conditions for life. God has made an all-inclusive covenant with all creation. This covenant has been sealed by the gift of God's grace, a gift that is priceless, not for sale in the marketplace. What does God require of us? Act justly, love tenderly and walk humbly with your God. Our peoples need policies that restore right relationships, preserve responsible communities, shrink economic inequalities, and allow space for all of creation to flourish in its diversity.
We believe and teach that God sustains and offers abundance for all from the bounty of the gracious economy of God (oikonomia tou theou). The economy of God is an economy of life that promotes sharing, globalizing solidarity, dignity of persons, forgiveness as well as love and care for the integrity of creation. The formal market must serve the greater economy of life. Faith compels us to confront the idolatrous assumptions that under gird many current economic practices.
We proclaim the God who hears the cry of the suffering world and who challenges us in love to serve our neighbors. The very nature of the body of Christ calls for solidarity with all people and with all creation.
We are gathered with brothers and sisters from churches around the world in the name of God, who gives life and calls us to share responsibility for all life.
As representatives of churches from Mexico, Canada, and the United States
We are witnesses to the ever-expanding demands of economic globalization and their negative impact on our communities and throughout the world. Inequality is growing even while technological and other advances have made it possible for a small segment of humanity to achieve unprecedented material prosperity. Billions of people are marginalized, oppressed and excluded from the economy of life, experiencing poverty, hunger, disease, hopelessness and even death.
In our discussions, we have heard testimonies of
- how political and military dominance in this time of Empire continues to impoverish people and cost lives;
- how Mexican "people of the corn", cultivators for thousands of years of diverse varieties of seed, now denounce the transgenic contamination of these seeds, that has put their own food security at risk;
- how indigenous peoples have used international trade tribunals to assert indigenous proprietary rights as an element to be addressed in international trade law;
- how corporations "shop the world" for ever lower-cost workers, and in the process Canadian, American and Mexican workers continue losing their jobs;
- how the dramatic drop in milk prices has led to the disappearance of so many family dairy farms;
- how prices and patents control ever more dimensions of life in community.
Participants from other regions have reminded us of how similar dynamics are also devastating their people, communities and the rest of creation.
We believe that current economic arrangements, international financial institutional and trade and investment treaties (e.g. NAFTA) unjustly distort the rules governing trade and investment to the advantage of the affluent and powerful. When trade and investment are seen as ends in themselves and not as the means to achieve just and sustainable development, our global community is reduced to simple exchanges of goods and does not reflect the Biblical vision for justice, peace and sustaining the integrity of creation.
Obligations to make payments on illegitimate debts result in a net drain of wealth from impoverished countries to wealthy creditors. Therefore a just and fair trade regime, by itself, is not sufficient. We reiterate our Jubilee Call for the cancellation of illegitimate, paralyzing, unjust and odious debts. We call for the creation of new economic relations between North and South based on the Biblical concept of restorative justice.
Our worldwide ecumenical commitment to unity in Christ enables and compels us to witness to the ever-resilient seeds of hope when justice, human solidarity, and care for creation take concrete expression in actions for change initiated by churches, civil society organizations and community groups. We are churches who believe that the economy of God includes ethical and spiritual principles that offer guidance and direction in the search for the very practical alternatives to ensure trade and investment respects the important role of government, advances the common good, and serves and economy of life not death.
PRINCIPLES FOR JUST AND FAIR TRADE AGREEMENTS
As representatives of churches in Mexico, Canada, and the United States, we declare our commitment to the following principles and policies for just and fair trade that serve the needs of all our global neighbors:
1) Trade and Investment Agreements, in order to ensure respect for dignity of all persons, should be subordinate to international law and agreements that guarantee universally recognized human rights. These include civil, political, economic, social and cultural rights; gender equity; labor rights; migrant worker rights; and rights of indigenous peoples.
2) Trade and Investment Agreements should recognize the inalienable rights of indigenous peoples to their traditional territories, resources and indigenous traditional knowledge. Indigenous peoples have to give their prior informed consent to any developments that impact their traditional territories.
3) Trade and Investment Agreements must also be subordinated to the goal of sustainable development and poverty reduction. This requires consistency among trade, development aid, and migration policies as well as dialogue among and inclusion of the relevant policy makers.
4) Trade and Investment Agreements should include measures to promote and strengthen respect for creation with environmental regulations and standards based upon the "precautionary principle" that safeguards the interests of future generations.
- Governments and corporations should conduct (local) impact studies and risk assessments.
5) Trade and Investment agreements should recognize and respect national sovereignty and the legitimate responsibility of governments to safeguard the well-being of all members of society, ensure democratic participation, and exercise public stewardship.
- preserve the integrity of publicly funded and administered health, education and government services;
- recognize the differential impact of trade and investment treaties on women, men and children and require positive measures to offset their adverse effects;
- recognize and safeguard the unpaid provision of care and nurture (e.g. education, health care, nutrition and socialization) and support the necessary social investments to strengthen family and community relationships;
- protect the right of public access to safe drinking water;
- protect the public interest and environmental integrity in public-private partnerships, privatizations, and in leases, contracts and agreements regarding the extractions of resources (e.g., mining, petroleum, hydro-electric, forestry, fishing or biological resources);
- reject investor-state dispute settlement mechanisms and prohibitions on performances requirements such as those found in Chapter 11 of the North America Free Trade Agreement;
- subordinate patents or trade related intellectual property rights to measures that would guarantee access for all to public goods, such as the compulsory licensing of generic pharmaceuticals to ensure access to life saving medicines.
6) Trade and Investment Agreements should support greater human security by building peace through governments and international institutions.
- strengthen the work of multilateral institutions, especially the United Nations;
- require transparency in priority setting, budgeting, and decision-making by international institutions
- accelerate the control and elimination of the arms trade.
7) Trade and Investment Agreements should allow for mutually beneficial agricultural trade, protect the ability of small producers to survive and thrive, and ensure that subsidies, tariffs and non-tariff trade barriers do not harm agricultural producers in small, weaker and less-developed States. These agreements must safeguard the ability of governments to protect the interest of their people.
- ensure the right to exclude staple foods (e.g. corn and beans) from trade agreements;
- safeguard the safety of foods;
- encourage environmentally safe and sustainable farming practices while respecting the needs and important role of local producers and their communities;
- ensure access to necessary nutritional food, particularly for the poor;
- regulate agribusiness to ensure that it contributes to the common good;
- ensure the rights and safety of farm workers and fisher folk;
- protect biodiversity, indigenous knowledge and traditional communal farming practices;
- adopt safeguards to protect against import surges;
- regulate and prohibit the importation of genetically modified organisms (GMOs), including food aid, until proven safe.
8) Trade and Investment Agreements should ensure greater corporate social responsibility and accountability.
- provide for effective regulation and compliance to ensure respect for human rights, adherence to international labor standards, and practices that safeguard the global environmental commons;
- enforce corporate charter obligations to contribute to the public interest;
- prohibit the commodification of life forms;
9) Trade and Investment Agreements should be reached through transparent negotiations and provide for greater participation by civil society in the negotiation, implementation, and monitoring of their performance.
10) Trade and Investment Agreements should incorporate genuine special and differential treatment for small, weaker and less developed states that require long-term special exemptions.
11) Trade and Investment Agreements must permit the stabilization of agricultural and mineral commodity prices at remunerative levels through arrangements, such as supply management commodity agreements, in order to reverse the deterioration in terms of trade experienced by primary exporters.
We commend the Fair Trade concept as a good working model of a more equitable system.
12) Trade and Investment Agreements must respect the sovereign rights of peoples and nations to choose a diversity of development paths, including those based on domestic self-reliance involving minimal international exchanges.
A New Heaven and A New Earth
In God's gracious economy, there is enough for all to enjoy abundant life if we but share. In organizing the global economy, God has entrusted us with a vocation as stewards of the common good, serving our neighbors and caring for the earth.
As people of faith and with great hope, we humbly pray that the God who created and redeemed this glorious world will create in us new hearts, filled with love for God and our neighbors. We confess our own weaknesses and shortcomings. May we learn how to reside together as members of the household of God, justly sharing the bounty of creation, and living with one another in harmony and mutual respect. May God's Spirit guide us into right relations between people and the earth, between one community and another. May God grant our leaders inspiration and wisdom, so that they might find the true paths on which we can move together to a more generous, sustainable and neighborly today and tomorrow.
HTML version of this document can be found on General Synod web site at: http://gs2004.anglican.ca/atsynod/reports/005-a.htm
Plan of Action - Just Trade Agreements ? January 14, 2004
[Full text of Plan of Action not entered in full in electronic database but can be accessed as link to HTML document on Anglican Church of Canada General Synod web site as below.]
HTML version of this document can be found on General Synod web site at: http://gs2004.anglican.ca/atsynod/reports/005-b.htm
"The PWRDF is grateful to The Reverend Elizabeth Steeves for writing this Lenten resource to share with Anglicans and others", -- p. 47.
"This Lenten resource focuses on the good things PWRDF, with its partners, is doing with regard to food security. In the coming weeks you'll be given the chance to pray, act, and give in ways which will connect you to the related issues and programmes PWRDF supports to promote access to a balanced and wholesome diet for all." -- p. 6.
Contents: On Growing Good Things -- The Journey Begins -- Ash Wednesday: The Journey Begins -- Lent 1: Sunday February 22 -- Lent 2: Sunday March 1  -- Lent 3: Sunday March 8 -- Lent 4: Sunday March 15 -- Lent 5: Sunday March 22  -- Palm / Passion Sunday: Sunday March 29 
Contents include seven "PWRDF Good News Stories": A Growing Balcony / Simon Chambers -- Self Help Groups: Empowering Women for Development / Jane Maxwell -- Pikangikum -- Fred Says "Let's Jam !" / Simon Chambers -- Sifa: A Story from the Field -- Earthquakes and Rainbows / Adele Finney -- Pass It On: Seeds for the Future / Simon Chambers.
"Food banks present Christians with a dilemma. Our biblical imperative is to feed the hungry, yet food banks in Canada, set up on a large scale 30 years ago, have become institutionalized. Tragically, many low-income Canadians, including young children, still go hungry. The question of food banks and their future was one of several issues tackled by a group of about 75 Anglicans of all ages, and from different backgrounds and dioceses, at the Shalom Justice Camp hosted by the diocese of Toronto in Peterborough, Ont., from Aug. 19 to 24 ". Elaine Power, a professor of kinesiology and health studies at Queen's University in Kingston, Ontario, "says food banks aren't solving the hunger problem. Food banks were created to fill a temporary need during the recession in the 1980s. Now a permanent part of the food system, they provide Canadians with the 'comforting illusion' that the problem of hunger is being addressed. 'Of those who are hungry, 75 per cent never get to the food bank', says Power. MaryAnn Huggett, from St. James in Stratford, Ont., works at a food bank and said that while food banks soften the blow for some, the real challenge is food security for all".
TORONTO, June 10, 1988 -- Legislation now before the House of Commons raises serious ethical issues and could impose extra hardship on Canadian farmers, the Anglican Church of Canada says.
Bill C-107, an act to establish "plant-breeders rights", has received first reading in the House. The church says there should be public hearings across Canada before the bill receives second reading.
In a letter to Prime Minister Brian Mulroney, the Church's general secretary lists several concerns about the legislation which would allow corporations to take out patents on plants. David Woeller says this raises important ethical questions: "Something as basic to the future of all human beings as food must be seen in a context broader than that of individual or corporate property rights and must not be decided only by plant scientists and big business."
The letter notes that this is the first time Parliament has addressed the concept of "patenting" life forms. It says once any kind of life form -- even plant life -- becomes established as a commodity to be bought and sold, it will become extremely difficult to draw the line: "The United States began with plant patenting but has moved to allow patenting for micro-organisms and animals.
"Earlier this year Harvard University was granted a patent for a mouse containing human genes ..... There is no difference between human genetic material and the genetic material of any other species."
The letter raises three additional concerns:
First it says "Bill C-107 is addressing the wrong issue". The real issue is to ensure adequate funds for agricultural research. It suggests this should be done through public funding, rather than through increasing profits to agricultural companies. It says there should be a white paper on the future of agricultural research to allow Canadians to consider this issue in its broader context.
Second, the evidence suggests that "agricultural input costs will increase substantially" as a result of the legislation".
-- there will be an immediate increase in seed costs of 10 percent, according to an estimate by the Manitoba department of agriculture;
-- several estimates predict a further rapid rise in prices, by at least 30 percent;
-- the example of pharmaceutical companies causes special concern. These companies recently received similar patent protection for prescription drugs. At that time, the federal government said price increases would not exceed the Consumer Price Index (about 5 percent). In fact, a study by the government of Ontario revealed that more than 1,000 drugs had excessive price increases over a six month period -- and some increased by more than 100 percent ! Many of the pharmaceutical companies responsible for these price increases are the same companies which seek patents on their seeds.
Third, the bill would operate to the detriment of Third World agriculture which has supplied us with much of our "germplasm" -- the genetic material of plant breeding -- free of charge. Bill C-107 flies in the face of United Nations initiatives to ensure "farmers' rights".
The letter concludes by urging the government to initiate public hearings to be held across the country before proceeding with the legislation.