Second revised edition. Originally published 1969.
"[By] Charles E. Hendry with with an introduction by the Rt. Rev. Gordon Beardy and an appendix on the work of the Anglican Church of Canada and government initiatives since the original release of `Beyond Traplines'."
Bibliography: pp. 111-112.
Includes statistics on native congregations and native clergy in new (1998) Appendix D page 101.
"The Hendry Report helped Native people take a big step toward self-determination. The report examined Canadian reality for the public in a way that had never been done before by any organization. The church was critical of itself and Canadian society and made recommendations that would address much of the pain and ignorance that had existed in our church community for so many years.
'Beyond Traplines' was a life-changing document for the Anglican church, with many powerful observations. It is, however, a document rooted in its own particular period of history and, because of that, there are some mistaken beliefs expressed and some landmark changes in Canada's history since 1969 that are, of course, not mentioned.
The text of this report has been left the way it was written almost thirty years ago. There are inaccuracies in the text and the history has changed some of the reality that is being expressed within the descriptions of society, but the report still remains very powerful. Included at the end of this new release of 'Beyond Traplines' are appendices that reflect on the information contained within the report and work to bring people up to date on initiatives undertaken since 1969 in Aboriginal society, by the church and government.
The Report of the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples, released 21 November 1996, continued this journey for Canada's Aboriginal peoples towards self-determination, but it also marked the possibility of something greater, that of healing and reconciliation for all of this nation's people. We, in the Anglican Church of Canada, celebrate this journey by educating the Canadian public about the Royal Commission, but also be continuing to use and develop our own uniquely Anglican resources". --  Foreword.
Contents:  Foreword / Gordon Beardy, Seventh Bishop of Keewatin, Muskrat Dam First Nation --  Introduction / [Charles E. Hendry] -- Acknowledgements / Charles E. Hendry -- Part One: The situation of Canada's native peoples -- The relationship of Western European missionaries to non-European peoples -- Value orientation re-examined -- Part Two: Anglican involvement in perspective -- Current policy and program orientation -- Missionary syndrome -- Part Three: Goals, strategies and tactics for change -- Implications for The Anglican Church of Canada -- Patterns for action: specific steps to implement change -- Part Four: Recommendations -- Appendix A: Specific Steps (Emphasis on the planning process) -- Appendix B: The Breakdown of Tribal Culture: A.D. 1769-1820 / George Irving Quimby -- Appendix C: A Position Paper Concerning the Stance of the Anglican Church to Indian Work, Prepared for Discussion Purposes dated 9 May 1966 / Edward W. Scott --  Appendix D: The Work of the Anglican Church of Canada and Government Initiatives Since the Release of 'Beyond Traplines' -- References.
"Editing and Indexing by Patricia Sherlock". -- verso of t.-p.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
"The Aboriginal Rights Coalition (ARC) is presenting this collection of essays as the latest in a series of public education projects it has undertaken since the release of the final report of the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples (RCAP) in 1996. This book was conceived of as a much-needed review of the government of Canada's response to the Royal Commission. In embarking on this project ARC asked the contributors to consider several related issues: What has the federal government's response been to the report of the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples ? Has the government's response been adequate ? Has the response been made in the spirit and intent of the Royal Commission's challenge to Canadians to build a new relationship between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal peoples based on mutual recognition, respect, sharing and responsibility ?' -- Preface.
Contents divided into three main parts: Part One: Exploring Perspectives on the Federal Government's Response to the Report of the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples -- Part Two: Departures -- Part Three: The International Dimension.
Contents: Editor's Note -- Preface / Patricia Sherlock, Editor -- Acknowledgements -- List of Abbreviations -- Renewing the Relationship : A Perspective on the Impact of the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples / Marlene Brant Castellano -- Canada's Response to the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples / Carol McBride -- Gathering Strength : The Government of Canada's Response to the Final Report of the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples / Bradford W. Morse and Tanya M. Kozak -- The Federal Government's Response to the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples / Stewart Phillip -- Gathering Dust or Gathering Strength : What Should Canada Do with the Report of the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples ? / Lorraine Y. Land -- RCAP's Big Blind Spots / Anthony Hall -- Treaty Making and its Potential for Conflict Resolution between Indigenous Nations and the Canadian State / Sharon H. Venne -- The Secwepemc People "Go International" / Arthur Manuel -- Introduction to the Submission of the Grand Council of the Crees (Quebec) to the UN Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights / Grand Council of the Crees (Quebec) -- A Human Rights "Report Card" : Canada's Treatment of Indigenous Peoples / Ann Pohl -- Epilogue / Ed Bianchi -- About the Authors -- About the Aboriginal Rights Coalition -- Index.
A Brief prepared by The Anglican Church of Canada For submission to The Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples At a Special Consultation between The Members of the Commission and Representatives of the Historic Mission Churches : Citadel Hotel, Ottawa, ON November 8-9, 1993
"For Submission to the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples At a Special Consultation between the Members of the Commission and Representatives of the Historic Mission Churches, Citadel Hotel, Ottawa, ON November 8-9, 1993".
"Brief prepared by: John Bird ... The Rev. Laverne Jacobs ... Terry Thompson ... Doug Tindal". -- title-page.
Contents: Table of Contents -- Executive Summary -- Full Circle: An Overview -- The Church's Historical Relationship -- A Change of Direction -- Residential Schools: Healing and Reconciliation -- Where Do We Go From Here ? -- Appendices.
Appendices: 1: Residential Schools: A Historic Overview -- 2: Anglican Church of Canada policy relating to Aboriginal peoples: 1959-1993 -- 3: Primate's apology to Aboriginal peoples for Anglican residential schools (with original press release and text of elder's acceptance) -- 4: Granting Criteria of the Residential Schools Working Group: 1992-1994 -- 5: Correspondence Between ARC Task Group on Residential Schools and Indian Affairs -- 6: Fifty-two recommendations submitted by the Aboriginal Rights Coalition to the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples -- 7: Number of Aboriginal members of General Synod and its committees: 1980-1992.
Contents: Introduction: We Welcome the Opportunity for Further Dialogue -- Historical Background of United Church Indian Missions -- United Church Residential Schools -- The United Church Apology, 1986 -- Self-Government within the United Church -- Struggles for Aboriginal Justice: Ecumenically, Locally, Internationally -- Responding to the Legacy of Residential Schools -- Support for Public Education on Aboriginal History -- Conclusion: A Vision of Reconciliation -- Appendices.
November 5, 1993 -- Twenty-five years after the last residential school for Native Canadians closed, their legacy remains among the most serious barriers to a just relationship with Aboriginal Canadians, an Anglican Church brief says.
The residential schools were run by churches and funded by the federal government. The schools were the most prominent feature of a set of policies designed to assimilate Aboriginal people into European culture and to eliminate Aboriginal culture. The results of these policies have been broken family relationships, loss of individual and community self-esteem, loss of identity and culture, and loss of spiritual roots. The residential schools are now recognized as a significant contributing factor to the high levels of substance abuse, community and family dysfunction, and suicide among native communities.
Now the Royal Commission on Aboriginal People has requested a special consultation with the historic mission churches -- Anglican, Presbyterian, Roman Catholic and United -- which operated the schools. The Anglican brief will be presented at the two-day consultation which begins Monday [8 November 1993]. It says the church and government shared responsibility for operating the schools, and now must share responsibility for helping to bring healing.
The Anglican Church administered 26 residential schools between 1820 and 1969. In 1969, after a major review of its relationship with Aboriginal people, the church refocused its efforts away from assimilation toward shared advocacy with Aboriginal people related to self-determination, treaty rights, and environmental concerns.
In its submission, the Anglican Church of Canada reaffirms its support for "the inherent dignity and intrinsic value of the cultural and spiritual traditions of Aboriginal peoples; the rights of Aboriginal peoples to self-determination in political, cultural, economic, social and spiritual spheres; and the rights of Aboriginal peoples to control their own land bases."
The submission draws attention to the church's own apology for its role in the residential schools, and its commitment to support the healing process for Aboriginal healing programs for people harmed by the schools.
Non-Aboriginal Canadians also need help to acknowledge their deep sense of shame that often leads them to deny the oppression of Aboriginal peoples, says the brief. Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal people need to work together on mutual healing and developing a new partnership.
Enclosures: Executive Summary of the Anglican Church submission; List of Anglican participants
For further information: John Bird, Special Assistant to the Primate on Residential Schools, 416-924-9199 Ext. 256 [During the hearing, Citadel Hotel, Ottawa 613-237-3600]; Doug Tindal, Director of Communications 416-924-9199 Ext. 286
A SUBMISSION BY THE ANGLICAN CHURCH OF CANADA TO THE ROYAL COMMISSION ON ABORIGINAL PEOPLES
Aboriginal people today speak repeatedly of their desire to recover the values and freedoms they enjoyed before contact with Europeans. They focus on the struggles:
- to become self-determining once again;
- to regain their own land bases and their relationship with the land;
- to rediscover their spiritual values and practices;
- to rediscover and revive their cultures; and
- to recover their sense of identity and self-esteem as the First Peoples of this land.
The same concerns are expressed by Native people within the Anglican Church of Canada. The constitute approximately four percent of Anglican membership. There are 210 active Anglican congregations in Aboriginal communities. Two suffragan (assistant) bishops, and approximately 70 clergy are Aboriginal persons.
I. THE CHURCH'S HISTORICAL RELATIONSHIP
At the time of first contact, the British had recognized the nationhood of the Aboriginal peoples, and treated them as potential political allies and trading partners. The relationship between the First Nations and the Anglican Church began in 1753 when the Reverend Thomas Wood became a missionary to the Micmac people.
British/European missionaries were convinced that their unique culture and faith expression must represent the truest reflection of Christianity and, therefore, of God's will. The church felt it had a Christian responsibility to help the First Nations assimilate into the cultural, political, economic and social structures of the British empire.
Educating and converting children soon became a key component in meeting this responsibility. The historic mission churches were supported by the federal government to establish and run a series of "residential schools" across the country. From 1820 to the end of Anglican involvement in 1970, the Anglican Church of Canada administered more than 26 residential schools for Aboriginal people in an area stretching from Quebec west, and including the territories. Between 50,000 and 100,000 Aboriginal people are estimated to have attended. For about 100 years the schools were central to the church's relationship with Aboriginal peoples.
II. A CHANGE IN DIRECTION
In the social ferment of the 1960s, the church was challenged by the growing strength and role of provincial and national Aboriginal organizations. Anglican leaders recognized that the First Nations had been severely marginalized and oppressed throughout Canadian history. They also identified the church's complicity in this. The church began to question both the theological basis of its relationship with the Aboriginal peoples, and its role in administering residential schools.
In 1968 the Anglican Church broke off its collaborative relationship with the government, and began to engage in solidarity actions supporting the Aboriginal peoples in three major areas:
- political self-determination;
- treaty and land rights; and
-industrial and environmental development.
This work is carried on through ecumenical agencies such as the Aboriginal Rights Coalition (formerly Project North), and through the church's own working groups, task forces and committees.
The solidarity work required a parallel response within church structures to make space for the concerns and spiritual and cultural expressions of Aboriginal Anglicans. A Council for Native Ministries (CNM) came into being, composed of Aboriginal Anglicans from across the country, and reporting directly to the church's National Executive Council (NEC).
During the late 1970s and much of the 80s, this Council worked in two areas:
- educating the church constituency about Aboriginal issues to enlist broad support in advocacy with government and society;
- and advocating for a greater role for Aboriginal persons within the church itself, for example by increasing Aboriginal representation on various church committees.
During the latter half of the 1980s, the Council became increasingly convinced that the process of recovery must begin with self. Accordingly, CNM returned to the traditional circle and consensus decision-making for its own meetings, and initiated dialogue on Aboriginal spirituality and Christianity.
III. RESIDENTIAL SCHOOLS : HEALING AND RECONCILIATION
The legacy of residential schools emerged again in the fall of 1990. With leadership from the Council for Native Ministries, NEC established and staffed a Residential Schools Working Group, and provided funding to enable healing and reconciliation.
Staff and members of the Residential Schools Working Group (RSWG) have participated in a number of conferences and healing circles related to Anglican-run residential schools, and have heard the individual stories of many former students and family members. The RSWG has identified
- broken family relationships
- loss of individual and communal self-esteem
- loss of identity and culture, and
- spiritual confusion
as the nearly universal results of experiences in residential schools. This has contributed to extensive substance abuse, family and community dysfunction and suicide in Aboriginal communities, even among succeeding generations.
The condition of Aboriginal peoples a generation after the closing of most residential schools constitutes a national crisis. The institutions that ran the schools (church and government) must acknowledge their responsibility to support and encourage healing.
IV. WHERE DO WE GO FROM HERE
Over the last quarter century, the Anglican Church has repeatedly affirmed:
- respect for the inherent dignity and intrinsic value of the cultural and spiritual traditions of Aboriginal peoples;
- the rights of Aboriginal peoples to self determination in political, cultural, economic, social (e.g. education, justice, health care) and spiritual spheres;
- the rights of Aboriginal peoples to control their own land base.
The church has also called repeatedly on federal and provincial governments to take action in accordance with these affirmations.
Through the Aboriginal Rights Coalition, the Anglican Church participated in developing the 57 recommendations contained in ARC's submission to the Royal Commission (see Appendix #6 for full list of ARC recommendations).
In August 1993, with the support of the NEC, the Primate of the Anglican Church of Canada publicly apologized to Aboriginal people for the violence they had suffered in Anglican-run residential schools, pledged continuing support for healing and reconciliation related to this issue, and encouraged diocesan bishops to take similar actions within their own jurisdictions.
In October 1993, the Residential Schools Working Group passed a series of resolutions encouraging the church to commit continued financial and personnel resources to healing work related to residential schools, and to support cultural and spiritual recovery for Aboriginal people within the church. Other resolutions also ask the National Executive Council to urge the federal government to apologize for its role in the residential schools, and commit financial resources to support grassroots, Aboriginal healing programs for people harmed by the schools.
ANGLICAN PARTICIPANTS IN THE SPECIAL CONSULTATION with the ROYAL COMMISSION ON ABORIGINAL PEOPLES
Citadel Hotel, Ottawa, November 8-9, 1993
Representatives at the Table
Archdeacon Jim Boyles, General Secretary of the General Synod, Toronto, ON
The Rev. Peter Hamel, Consultant on National Affairs, Staff representative on Aboriginal Rights Commission, Recently appointed priest at St. Paul's Church, Haida community of Masset, B.C.
The Rev. James Isbister, Member: Plains Cree Nation, Atakakoop Reserve, Saskatchewan, Deputy-Prolocutor of General Synod, Chair: Council for Native Ministries
The Rt. Rev. Caleb Lawrence, Bishop: Anglican Diocese of Moosonee, Ontario Member: National Executive Council Liaison for Council of the North with the Council for Native Ministries
Vi Samaha, Member: Nlaka'pamux Nation, Diocese of Cariboo, British Columbia. Member: National Executive Council Member: Council for Native Ministries Former student of St. George's Residential School, Lytton, BC
Staff Back-up: John Bird, Special Assistant to the Primate on Residential Schools (Media Contact at the Consultation); Shirley Harding, Special Assistant to the Primate on Residential Schools; The Rev. Laverne Jacobs, Co-ordinator for Native Ministries
The federal government should share responsibility with mainline churches in bringing healing to native people. This is the message the churches delivered in presentations to the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples in Ottawa in November 1993.
Anticipating the release of the final report of the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples, the Anglican Church of Canada is urging the federal government to apologize for its role in residential school.
That this General Synod express appreciation to Jane Stewart, Minister of Indian Affairs and Northern Development, for initiative shown in beginning a serious response to the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples and:
a) request an apology from the Prime Minister for the pain caused by the Residential Schools' policies;
b) request the convening of a meeting between the First Ministers and Aboriginal leaders;
c) ask the Federal Government to recognize the experience of the churches in the process of healing and reconciliation; and
d) ask the Federal Government to consult with leaders of First Nation, Inuit and Metis Governments in formulating detailed responses to the recommendations of the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples, remembering to include representatives from women's, youth and urban Aboriginal organizations. CARRIED WITHOUT DEBATE Act 66
Abstentions were noted from Chancellor David Wright, Captain Baxter Park, Captain Todd Meaker, Mr. Bryan Campbell and Canon Andrew Gates.
Information kit about the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples prepared in 1993 ?.
Kit includes: 1) brochures in English and French with Terms of Reference of the Commission; 2) list of "Round III Hearing Schedule - Revised" in English and French; 3) "Notes for a Speech for the Press Conference on the Occasion of the Third Round of Public hearings of the Commission" / Rene Dussault in English and French; 4) Press release "The idea of Aboriginal Peoples as First Peoples to govern this land has implications for the balance of rights and responsibilities in Canada" dated 2 April 1993; 5) Press release "Focus on Quebec's vision of future relations between Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal peoples" dated 30 April 1993; 6) "The Circle", vol. 2, no. 2, April 1993, in English and French on inverted pages; 7) "Biographies of the Commissioners for the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples"; 8) bookmark "About the logo" in English and French.