That the National Executive Council ask the Primate, after consultation with appropriate persons, and in whatever manner he deems most effective, to give support to the Canadian Government in their announced plans to begin making grants to African Liberation Movements. CARRIED
It was requested that we interpret what we mean by "African Liberation Movements" and it was recommended that a statement be sent to all clergy.
Statements made by the Reverend Canon Burgess Carr to the General Synod of the Anglican Church of Canada in Calgary in August  have prompted a number of media articles, comments and reports, and individual reactions by Canadians. Canon Carr, Secretary General of the All Africa Conference of Churches was commenting on the Churches' support of liberation movements in Africa (through the World Council of Churches) and of Christian involvement with what is called "guerrilla warfare" by some, "freedom fighters" by others, as the struggle of "indigenous native peoples for basic rights" or "liberation movements" by still others.
In an effort to clarify the situation a lengthy position paper has been prepared by the Primate of the Anglican Church of Canada and some of its staff members. We enclose the full text of the paper for your information and hope you will keep it on file should there be further interest on the part of your readers or audience.
We would point out several highlights of the paper. Much misunderstanding has been created because the Anglican Church of Canada supports the World Council of Churches which, in turn, makes grants to groups such as the South-West Africa People's Organization (SWAPO). The paper points out that any such grants do not come from General WCC funds or even from the General Relief and Development Fund.
There is, in the WCC, a special Program to Combat Racism, which has a separate fund, maintained by special contributions from individuals, groups and churches given specifically for this purpose from which grants are made. No grant is given until strict criteria are met. These criteria are meant to insure that the grants are used for humanitarian purposes. However, there are charges that the money so provided releases other funds for military purposes. Since the WCC knows what much of the money is used for - support of people in refugee camps, education of children in areas of the country where liberation groups have control, health supplies - they are confident that it is being used for humanitarian purposes which would not, for the most part, be carried out to the same extent if grants were not made.
The tragic situation is that the focussing on these small grants made for humanitarian purposes has diverted attention from the fact that there are governments from both the "right" and the "left" who are quite prepared to provide arms when it suits their purposes, and have poured millions of dollars into military activity in Africa. This in contrast to the fact that the total amount expended by the special fund, not just in Africa but in every part of the world, would scarcely buy one tank if it had been diverted for such purposes, which is not the case.
In its first six years, the fund for the Programme to Combat Racism received and disbursed approximately $1,500,000 to groups on every continent. Roughly one-half of this went to Africa. There is one interesting facet of this for concerned Canadian Anglicans. The Anglican Church of Canada has contributed $10,000 annually to this Programme. Between 1970 and 1976, the Programme to Combat Racism has made amongst its grants, these:
The Inuit (Eskimo) Tapirisat of Canada - 1971 - $2,500.00
The National Indian Brotherhood (on behalf of the Cree) - 1973-4 - $12,500.00
The Indian Brotherhood of the N.W.T. - 1973 - $7,500.00
The Committee for Original Peoples Entitlement - 1976 - $10,000.00
For further information, please contact:
Richard J. Berryman
The Anglican Church of Canada
600 Jarvis Street
Toronto, Ontario M4Y 2J6
(416) 924-9192 ext. 253
ANGLICAN CHURCH OF CANADA POSITION PAPER ON THE WORLD COUNCIL OF CHURCHES PROGRAM TO COMBAT RACISM
Statements made by the Reverend Canon Burgess Carr to the General Synod of the Anglican Church of Canada in Calgary in August  have prompted a number of media articles, comments and reports, and individual reactions by Canadians. Canon Carr, Secretary General of the All Africa Conference of Churches, was commenting on the Churches' support of liberation movements in Africa (through the World Council of Churches) and of Christian involvement with what is called "guerrilla warfare" by some, "freedom fighters" by others, as the struggle of "indigenous native peoples for basic rights" by others and "liberation movements" by others. These groups are all involved in a struggle against "racism."
The Churches because they believe that "God has created of one blood all nations of people," and because they believe human beings are made in the image of God, and are therefore of value and worth have, particularly in the last quarter century pressed for the recognition of the need for conversations between the aggrieved majorities of Southern Africa and their minority governments. This separation has in many instances, particularly in the cases of South Africa and Rhodesia, existed in extreme form because racism has been structured into law. The clear preference of the Churches and the vast majority of those involved in a search for a change has been to seek non-violent change. But within the broadly based groups seeking change there have been and are some elements which have come to believe that the necessary changes will not come about by non-violent means, and also some individuals and groups who under extreme provocation in particular instances have resorted to violence. Such groups and actions are also to be discovered in the historical development of Britain, Canada and the U.S.A. -- in fact of virtually every country in the world.
In Africa some black groups have resorted to war always against huge odds, only when other methods of achieving change have been exhausted -- when they have seen other methods have been increasingly restricted by such actions as banning of distribution of literature, of the right to meet together, and to organize, and now more and more they are suffering personal detention and harassment. The most recent example of this is the case of Steve Biko, a prominent young leader devoted to non-violence whose death occurred during imprisonment.
Stories of brutality by liberation movements have been publicized but these can be matched and perhaps exceeded by stories of brutality involving violent oppression, torture, and death on the part of ruling governments over many years. But trading of atrocity stories accomplishes very little, if anything. Three things need to be recognized.
1. Violence does exist.
2. Violence of itself cannot create a better or more just world, and all too often violence leaders to counter violence in an ascending scale.
3. Today it is recognized that very often there is a high level of violence in many institutionalized structures, particularly in Africa.
But violence has been and is a part of history and there have been times when violence has destroyed a repressive situation and provided an opportunity to develop something new in its place. There have also been times when violence has been used to destroy hopeful conditions and to bring about oppression and exploitation. The place of violence and non-violence in social change is a complex one and one which the World Council of Churches has been studying carefully and, I believe, responsibly (see attached document).
Even as this study has been progressing, the World Council, because of the Christian call to stand on the side of the oppressed and to work for liberation, which was the ter[m] in which Jesus described his ministry:
"And there was delivered unto him the book of the prophet Esaias. And when he opened the book he found the place where it was written, The Spirit of the Lord in [i.e. is] upon me, because he hath anointed me to preach the gospel to the poor; he hath sent me to heal the broken-hearted, to preach deliverance to the captives, and recovering of sight to the blind, to set at liberty them that are bruised, to preach the acceptable year of the Lord. And he closed the book, and he gave it again to the minister and sat down. And the eyes of all them that were in the synagogue were fastened on him. And he began to say unto them, This day is this scripture fulfilled in your ears." (Luke 4:17-21)
The World Council has sought to take positive action to identify with those who are struggling against racism in many parts of the world through a special program designed to combat racism. This program has three sections.
1. An administrative section with three staff members which initiates studies.
2. A program section with projects undertaken by church groups designed to combat racism as it is found in particular forms and places.
3. Grants made from a special fund which was formed by an initial grant from the WCC and maintained since then by special contributions made by individuals, groups and Churches who give money directly to this fund for its stated purposes. In its first six years the fund received and disbursed approximately $1,500,000 to organizations and groups in various parts of the world, part of whose program is designed to combat racism. Grants to such groups have been made on every continent. They are applied for, but are not given until the organizations agree to use the grants according to strict criteria as follows:
-1. The purpose of the organizations must not be inconsonant with the general purposes of the WCC and its units, and the grants are to be used for humanitarian activities (i.e. social, health and educational purposes, legal aid, etc.).
-2. The proceeds of the Fund shall be used to support organizations that combat racism, rather than welfare organizations that alleviate the effects of racism and which would normally be eligible for support from other units of the World Council of Churches.
-3. (a) The focus of grants should be on raising the level of awareness and strengthening the organizational capability of the racially oppressed people.
- (b) In addition, we recognize the need to support organizations that align themselves with the victims of racial injustice and pursue the same objectives.
4. The grants are intended as an expression of commitment by the PCR to the cause of economic, social and political justice, which these organizations promote.
5.(a) The situation in Southern Africa is recognized as a priority due to the overt and intensive nature of white racism and the increasing awareness on the part of the oppressed in their struggle for liberation.
- (b) In the selection of other areas we have taken account of those places where the struggle is most intense and where a grant might make a substantial contribution to the process of liberation, particularly where racial groups are in imminent danger of being physically or culturally exterminated.
- (c) In considering applications from organizations in countries of white and affluent majorities, we have taken not only of those where political involvement precludes help from other sources.
6. Grants should be made with due regard to where they can have the maximum effect: token grants should not be made unless there is a possibility of their eliciting a substantial response from other organizations.
The geographic area where the grants have led to much discussion is Africa. Southern Africa has received approximately one half of the grants made thus far. Here there has been no case where it was ever proven that the grants were used for military purposes. However, there are charges that the money so provided released other funds for military purposes. Since we know what much of the money is used for -- support of people in refugee camps, education of children in areas of the country where liberation groups have control, health supplies -- we are confident that they are being used for humanitarian purposes which would not, for the most part, be carried out to the same extent if grants were not made.
The tragic situation is that the focussing on these small grants made for humanitarian purposes has diverted attention from the fact that there are governments from both the "right" and the "left" who are quite prepared to provide arms when it suits their purpose, and have poured millions of dollars into military activity in Africa. This in contrast to the fact that the total amount expended by the special fund, not just in Africa but in every part of the world, would scarcely buy one tank if it had been diverted for such purposes, which is not the case.
Three things are clearly evident. One, a hopeful one, is that many people are concerned about the growing use of violence and of how the Churches should be responding to it. As long as violence exists, Churches and Church people must grapple with this reality and try to sort out how to respond to this reality with Christian insights. Christians do not share a common mind about this. The position Christians take is often greatly influenced by the context or conditions under which they live and by the alternative courses of action which are open or closed to them. As understanding of this fact grows the polarization within the Churches becomes less.
Second, certain groups seem clearly involved in opposing the program to combat racism and to focus attention upon it as a way to keep general attention away from some of the underlying causal conditions which lead to violence.
Third, to set violence and non-violence as they relate to social change, as the only two positions and in complete opposition is to ignore reality. They are better viewed as the two extremes of an arc in which there are a wide variety of shades of opinion and of action. The following Social Involvement Rating Scale helps to identify some of the modes of action open to individuals and groups within society and the Church. Studied carefully, it helps us gain a deeper understanding of a complex issue and also to identify where we stand and why.
SOCIAL INVOLVEMENT RATING SCALE
1. 'Non-involvement': Conscious avoidance of any involvement in social and political activities.
2. 'Reactive involvement': Involvement in social and political activities occurs mainly when the church is in an established position but when institutional power is threatened or influence is eroded due to social change processes. Involvement can either by [i.e. be] directly or indirectly political.
3. 'Active Personal Involvement': Involvement is positive (not reactive), but limited to personal issues not seen as related to the social structure. Action is 'non political' and is concerned with individual development and improvement of personal welfare services.
4. 'Active Social Involvement' (concensus) [i.e. consensus]: Involvement is positive, but extending beyond personal issues seeking incremental, gradual change in the social structure and attitudes by educational methods using democratic processes.
5. 'Active Involvement in Structural Change' (conflict): Involvement is characterised by greater political activism using confronting techniques to achieve incremental but more rapid evolutionary changes in social structure.
6. 'Indirect Involvement in Revolution': Involvement by using non-violent techniques aimed at the peaceful overthrow of existing political and social structures.
7. 'Direct Active Involvement in Revolution': Involvement by using techniques aimed at the violent overthrow of existing oppressive political and social structures.
[Graphic showing an arc graph with labels from left to right] Non-involvement, Reactive Involvement, Active Personal Involvement, Active Social Involvement (consensus), Active Involvement in structural change (conflict), Indirect Involvement in revolution, Direct Active Involvement in revolution - Adapted from a scale developed by the Reverend Peter J. Hollingsworth, Melbourne, Australia.
Anglican Archbishop Lewis Garnsworthy of Toronto has responded to criticism of the Church's stand on South Africa. That criticism came from Canon Malcolm Hughes of Montreal who recently returned from South Africa. He publicly disagreed with the support the Church has given to the isolating of South Africa economically.
Archbishop Garnsworthy, who also spent considerable time in South Africa last year, declared, "I would like to ask him to specify what changes in the apartheid policy in South Africa are actually taking place. There are many responsible people who feel any changes being made are no more than cosmetic and many of us would like to be assured that this is not so."
"The Anglican Church of Canada has never said that multi-national corporations ought not to invest and give employment to South African people, white and black. What the Church has stressed is that when corporations from outside South Africa engage in business and industry in that country, they do so with a deep sense of Christian social responsibility in terms of wages, working conditions and general social attitudes. This also means a social responsibility towards the evil of apartheid. Unless Mr. Hughes can substantiate some very real changes in the whole South Africa policy, as expressed racially, there are many of us who will remain in doubt as to the validity of what is really happening."
Hughes, who is the editor of the Anglican Diocese of Montreal's newspaper, is a Director of the Canadian-South Africa Society. His trip was partially funded by a study grant from the South African Foundation, which the Primate of the Anglican Church, Archbishop E.W. Scott says, "represents a particular point of view on South Africa -- one which stems from those in positions of privilege."
The Anglican Church of Canada's highest parliament, General Synod has repeatedly asked that there be no further investments in South Africa by Canadian banks, businesses and multi-national corporations in an effort to pressure its Government to discontinue the policy of apartheid and to give black South Africans equality and the vote.
As recently as last May 5th the Anglican Church was represented in a major presentation made to External Affairs Minister Mark McGuigan by the Task Force on the Churches and Corporate Responsibility.
Although Canon Hughes stated that black leaders to whom he spoke were supportive of the South African Government's present pace of change and want investments, the Rev. Murray MacInnes, African specialist on the National Staff of the Church, points out that he did not mention, however, that to support disinvestment publicly is treason for a South African. In spite of this, the Church of the Province of South Africa, in a statement issued in June, 1980, condemned, "acceptance of or acquiescence in the evil and injustice inherent in Apartheid. This system cannot be amended. It must be eradicated." The statement continued, "The Church must seek to demonstrate the necessity for the redistribution of the power and wealth which accumulates in the centre of the economy of the country at the expense of the dispossessed and deprived who live on the peripheries."
Toronto - Archbishop E.W. Scott, Canada's representative on the Commonwealth Commission on South Africa, arrived in Johannesburg on the week-end. From there he will join other members of the Commission in a series of visits to "Front-Line States" in southern Africa this week.
The Commission will then return to the Republic of South Africa for meetings with internal leaders of the black majority in the country, and, hopefully, with its Government.
Archbishop Scott will return to Canada by mid-March for the meetings of all the Primates of the Anglican Communion in Mississauga.
If there is anything of substance to be reported on the Commission's work at that time, the Archbishop will meet with the media. As much advance notice of such media opportunities will be given as possible.
"Published by The Anglican Church of Canada Social Action Unit".
"At the General Synod held in Niagara Falls in January of 1971, the Anglican Church considered ways of expressing some concern about racism throughout the world, and its evil effects upon mankind. South Africa was chosen as a specific focus for this widespread problem .... This resource booklet is an attempt to provide interested church people with additional information on the South African situation today. Much of its is in the words of South Africans. Much of it contains the challenge about racism given to us by the World Council of Churches. All of it can help us to be more realistic about being `the Church in the World'." -- Intro., p. 2.
Contents: Introduction / Philip Jefferson -- A View of South Africa -- Some South Africa Statistics -- Address : Stability and Change in Africa / Julius Nyerere -- Questions Most Frequently Asked About the South African Boycott -- Anglican Resolutions : 1949, 1971 -- Church of the Province of South Africa Resolution 1970 -- Program to Combat Racism August 1968 -- World Council of Churches Resolutions, January 1971, March 1971 -- United Nations Covenant on Human Rights -- For Further Reading -- Film Resources -- Action Contacts -- Information Contacts.
Toronto - Enclosed are the Christmas Messages of the Archbishop of Canterbury, the Most Rev. and Rt. Hon. Robert Runcie, and the Primate of the Anglican Church of Canada, the Most Rev. Edward W. Scott.
If you are wondering about the signature on Archbishop Runcie's message, it is his official signature "Robert Cantuar." Cantuar is the ancient Latin name of his diocese of Canterbury.
Along with these messages may I include my own personal best wishes for the holiday season and for health and satisfaction in your work in the new year. Thank you very much for your co-operation in 1985 and please feel free to get in touch at any time if I can be of assistance to you in 1986.
The Rev. Richard J. Berryman
The Archbishop of Canterbury's Christmas Message 1985
"Glory to God in the highest, and on earth peace, good will towards men."
The heart of the message of Christmas is this - the good news of God's entering our world in the birth of Jesus to share our lives, our suffering, even our death. And in so identifying with us, with our trials and tribulations, he turns them around, bringing good out of evil, compassion out of cruelty, hope out of horror. Let us hold on to this message as we look ahead, and as we remember a trying and troubled year for many parts of our Anglican family.
Throughout 1985 we have experienced famine in the Sudan and Ethiopia; continued conflict in Central America and the Middle East; revelation of atrocities in Uganda; riots on the streets of English cities; oppression and violence in South Africa; a devastating earthquake in Mexico City; communal conflict and refugees in Southeast Asia.
Perhaps South Africa has been most on our minds. Archbishop Philip Russell has led the Church there in a gentle but firm manner, making it clear that the Church can never support a system which treats men and women as less than human because of the colour of their skin.
The prophetic witness of Bishop Desmond Tutu has caught the attention and warmed the hearts of many. His is a ministry characterised by a powerful mixture of courage, realism and humility. He knows his needs of others: he cannot achieve lasting peace and goodwill in South Africa alone. He must maintain the support of his own people, and he must win the support of the white population and the government. He needs the practical sympathy of the international community and of the Church. I am regularly in touch with him as are many others of you throughout the Anglican family. We pray that his moderate voice is not silenced.
In South Africa, Uganda, Nicaragua, Argentina, Ireland, Britain, Mexico, Jordan and Sri Lanka we are learning in the Communion that when one member suffers, we all suffer. And we are learning to express our common sympathy in ways which build up the common good.
Let us pray this Christmas that our common life and witness may bear glory to God int he highest, build peace on earth, and bear good will towards all.
[signed] Robert Cantuar
A Christmas Message to the People of Canada from the Primate of the Anglican Church of Canada
At Christmas every year I am struck by the profound simplicity of the revelation contained in the all too familiar song of the angels, that God wills good for his people and calls people to will good for each other.
As you may have seen in the media recently, I have accepted new responsibility to be the Canadian appointee to the Commonwealth Commission on Southern Africa. Part of my reason for doing that is that I see the Commission as a concrete move to achieve ways and means for people who find themselves trapped in tragic circumstances to will good to and for each other. In that, I am doing, on an international scale, no more than we all should be endeavouring to do not only at Christmas, but throughout every day of our lives at the personal level.
I wish two things for the people of my country this Christmastide. First that we may recover the sense that we live out the ordinariness of our daily lives in the midst of eternity. That what we do each day has eternal value. That seems so simple, but is so profound. If we receive that gift, my second wish will follow.
It is that that profound truth will set each of us free, empower us to will good and to reach in love to each other. As two lines of a poem I read recently say, "Having glimpsed some magnificent overpowering truth, Makes me doubt the finality of anything less."
The overpowering truth that we see in the Birth in the manger, that God will us good and calls us to will good for each other should cause us to doubt the finality of the pride of race, the greed of power, the fear of those who are different, and the pessimism that this is a God-forsaken world.
God has not foresaken this world. Christmas tells us he is immersed in its human life and history. We go out day by day to meet him in it. That is our reason for hope in the face of all the hopelessness of our weary world.
Good will to you all and hope fill your hearts and homes this Christmas.
Bishop Bothwell presented a statement that was suggested be sent to the Church in South Africa and a second statement to go to the Government of Canada.
"In humility we wish to express our solidarity with you during this present time of torment. Your Prime Minister is reported to have said in October, 1976 that, `South Africa will continue to keep blacks out of the country's political life.' The established inequalities and injustices that flow daily from this intransigent position are well known by you and you have continually interpreted obedience to God as the necessity for speaking and standing against these indignities. In the words of Archbishop B. Burnett, `It is evident that there will not be the necessary change in the fabric of our society without the determined effort of black people.'
We rejoice that recent statements of the South African Council of Churches, the Christian Institute, and the Diocesan Council of Capetown [i.e. Cape Town] all firmly call for the holding of a fully representative national convention of all peoples of South Africa and condemn detention without charge or trial. We recognize in them and the statement of the seventeen Black Dutch Reformed Church ministers increasing unity and work for the liberation of all South Africans. The seventeen issued a call to their people in the words, `Let us not despair but confirm our joy and faith in Jesus Christ the Liberator,' that challenges us all.
We mourn with you for those who have fallen in the present crisis and will continue to pray and work for the release of persons detained without charges such as our Anglican sister in the faith, Mrs. Sally Motlana, a vice-President of the South Africa Council of Churches and one of the Presidents of the All Africa Council of Churches.
Your call to white South Africans particularly to recognize their responsibility for the sinful structures of Apartheid is also heard by us because of our complicity with them. We too take seriously the call to repentance, for our indifference and that of our government and economic interests have increased injustice in South Africa.
Your government, rather than coming to terms with her own people and the inevitability of change towards justice, has sought massive international assistance to weather the internal economic crisis, seriously aggravated by massive increases in defense and security spending. In February 1976 a $200 million loan was secured for the government owned Electric Supply Commission from 28 United States, European and Canadian banks, and a larger $500 million loan is being sought for balance-of-payment support at this time when there is a considerable fear of slowdown in foreign investment. Together with other Canadian Christians we pledge renewed efforts to terminate this direct support for the regime which oppresses the majority of your people.
The present open expression of dissent in South Africa demonstrates confidence in another power than racist oppression. It is a sign of the indomitable spirit and hope burning in the hearts of the vast majority of its black population and the substantial minority of whites. We pray that God will bless your efforts to support and sustain spirit and hope with the enriching gospel of Christ our Saviour."
Moved by Bothwell
Seconded by Graham
That this Statement be sent from this National Executive Council of the Anglican Church of Canada to the Church in South Africa.
That a message of commendation be sent to the Archbishop of Cape Town expressing appreciation for the courageous statement in his pastoral letter of September 1, 1976. CARRIED
The Council requested that they receive the full documentation on this subject. (See Appendix 1)
PASTORAL LETTER FROM THE ARCHBISHOP OF CAPE TOWN, TO BE READ AT ALL SERVICES ON SUNDAY, 5TH SEPTEMBER, OR WHERE THAT IS NOT POSSIBLE, ON SUNDAY, 12TH SEPTEMBER.
(Embargoed to the Press until 12 noon on Sunday, 5/9/76)
Dear brothers and sisters in Christ,
In times of turmoil and stress our first responsibility is, as always, to be obedient to God. Faith that is rooted in obedience to Him strengthens and encourages us all because it asserts that "the light shines in the darkness and the darkness has not overcome it" (John 1:5).
If, moveover, we are to speak and act with the mind of Christ, we need to sift carefully the demands men make on us, to speak or to be silent; to act in a particular way, or even remain inactive. It is not at all difficult to act or react in times such as these in such a fashion as simply to demonstrate that we ourselves are part of the disease that needs healing.
It has nevertheless become needful to address ourselves both as Churchmen and as citizens and also to address our Government. With a deep sense of urgency and after careful deliberation your Diocesan Council at its meeting on 28th August, passed without a dissentient a resolution, the contents of which I now convey to you:
"In this time of crisis we mourn with the black community and all others who have suffered bereavement, injury, humiliation and material loss. We condemn the detention without charge or trial of persons thought to be leading the black struggle for justice and liberation.
We call on the white community in general and the government in particular to acknowledge that the policy of so-called separate development, which we do not recognise as the Will of God, has failed. We believe we are seeing in the present turmoil the judgment of God on this policy.
We call for the holding of a fully representative national convention that would prepare a new constitution based on full and equal human rights, participatory democracy and economic justice.
We call on all Church members to acknowledge their share of responsibility for the grave disorders of their society and to place themselves and their country unreservedly in the hands of God, and to allow His Spirit of power, love and discernment to re-direct them in the ways of justice and peace."
The resolution ends here. But if its effects end there it will have had only propaganda value. For that reason I have written to the Prime Minister and enclosed a copy of the resolution. It have made it clear to him, moreover, that we as a Church cannot address him on such a matter out of our own righteousness but from a conviction laid upon us by the Lord. For that reason also this cannot be the end of the matter.
Of one thing I am certain. God is calling us all to repentance. Unless in particular white Christians admit the wrongs they have done to black people and take action to redress them, there can be no possibility of healing in our land. We have failed grievously to act towards our fellow Christians and fellowmen as those beloved of God. We have been greedy and not shared our good things and opportunities with our brothers. We have been proud and failed to come alongside our brothers, nor have we shared with them in a determination to work for changes in our society. We have failed to recognize the worth to our Father of people who do not have our colour or traditions and we have not embraced them unreservedly as brothers. We have not shown them that we need them for our own growth as Christians.
Black Christians will certainly know themselves also as children of God needing repentance. "All have sinned and fall short of the glory of God" says St. Paul, and we need to ask God to deliver us all from seeing only the mote in our brother's eye. But at this moment it is those of us who exercise political power and benefit from the established inequalities of our society who bear a far greater responsibility for what we now experience.
It is evident nevertheless that there will not be the necessary changes in the fabric of our society without the determined efforts of black people. You too need God's resources to press for justice without rancour and to struggle for a better way of life without becoming the prisoners of hatred. You will need God's strength to strive and not to yield where your decisions are rightly based in God's will. You will need the gifts of God's love to retain the freedom to forgive.
It is relatively painless, however, to say what the Diocesan Council resolution says. During the last two or three decades we have made many excellent statements. But we have failed, by and large, to accept from God and to use the spiritual resources to do what we talk about. We can even be so absorbed by what we call the burning issues of the day, that we fail to perceive that the real issue for Christians is not simply the transformation of society, but whether or not we believe in God in such a way that within our fellowship we reflect the ethics of the Kingdom and become the means by which the Lord can transform our life together.
We, both priests and people, need to submit ourselves constantly to the searching scrutiny of God's Spirit in prayer, fasting and study of Holy Scripture to see whether we ourselves give expression to the power of the redeeming and healing love of God in all our relationships.
This is an exercise for those who have a strong social conscience as well as those who are deeply committed to personal evangelism, and most of all, for those who are involved in neither. Then we may manifest a Gospel which reveals the depth of our divine calling, and frees within us the unique resources and irreplaceable light from God to direct and sustain us in our search for a more humane social order.
And so I exhort you with St. Paul: "Stand fast in the faith. Quit you like men; be strong. Let all that you do be done in love" and the blessing of God, Father, Son, and Holy Spirit, anoint and sustain you.
That the National Executive Council of the Anglican Church of Canada commends to the Government of Canada for its statement on the Republic of South Africa delivered in the General Assembly of the United Nations on November 1, 1976 and urges clear action consonant with the words of the statement:
"The events of the past year demonstrate visibly that time remaining for effective peaceful change is growing shorter day by day. We believe that our individual and collective efforts must be intensified and harmonized -- we believe that no opportunity should be missed to expose the government of South Africa and its electorate to unanimous and relentless international pressures which demand action and change. Change is bound to come. South Africans of all races must face up to that fact and develop a new relationship. If conditions of chronic turbulence which risk deterioration into civil war, with its attendant toll of human tragedy are to be avoided, change must take place, not ten years hence, not five years hence, but now."
and requests the Primate to forward to the Government of Canada a more detailed comment in the light of previous actions by this Church and information available from Anglican and other sources.
The NEC urges the Canadian government publicly to discourage further bank or commercial loans by private or crown financial institutions to the Government of South Africa or any of its crown corporations or agencies.
The NEC requests the Government of Canada to indicate what concrete and specific steps it proposes to take both unilaterally and multilaterally to increase the international censure of South Africa. CARRIED
Arrest and trial in South Africa and conditions existing under the laws of apartheid, are described by the former Anglican Dean of Johannesburg, Canon Gonville Aubie ffrench-Beytagh, touring Canada from October 21 to November 13, visiting 15 Canadian cities.*
The Dean, accused of encouraging the violent overthrow of the government, was arrested in Johannesburg in January 1971 and held in solitary confinement for eight days. On November 1, 1971 he was convicted and sentenced to five years in jail but charges were subsequently dismissed in April 1972. The Dean then left South Africa and is now living in England.
Canon ffrench-Beytagh has been invited to Canada by a committee of Canadian deans of Anglican Cathedrals so that both churchmen and the general public of Canada can learn more about apartheid and its effect on the more-than-two-thirds of South Africa's population which is black. His visit is financed by the Primate's World Relief and Development Fund.
Over the past two decades the South African government has slowly stifled all normal channels for contact with Africans and all legitimate forms of active dissent. According to the English newspaper, the "Guardian," the net is now tightening on the church, the last white organization left with regular access to Africans as well as access to the world outside South Africa. It called the Dean's conviction a savage verdict, saying "a five-year prison sentence for giving money, clothing and food to the wives and families of political prisoners illustrates starkly the extent of the repression now practiced in South Africa's police state." A member of the World Council of Churches Program to Combat Racism, Mrs. Justice Jiagge of Ghana, has said "the crime of Christians is that we have allowed the South Africa situation to go on for so long and still do so little to stop it. If there is among Christians a feeling of solidarity with the human race, situations like South Africa will not exist."
The "Christian Century" suggested that the Dean's arrest was part of a stepped-up campaign to silence clergy criticism of government policies, especially racial apartheid. The article point out that some 50 clergymen had been subject to government penalties during the past 12 months.
The Chief Justice of the Appeals Court dismissing the Dean's conviction noted that although the Dean consistently opposed many laws, especially those enforcing apartheid, it was clear that he was no supporter of terrorism.
The Dean of Johannesburg believes that the doctrine of apartheid is "damnable heresy," and that "a man born black cannot come to the fullness of his humanity." He cites verses of St. Matthew 25 as a need for church involvement, "for I was hungry and you gave me food; I was thirsty, and you gave me drink; I was a stranger, and you took me in; I was in prison and you visited me."
The theory of apartheid is that each race should be able to develop separately along its own lines, in peace. But laws used to implement that theory involve hardship and injustice. No black South African has the right to vote, to strike or to bargain with his employers. This leaves him no legal way to change the discriminatory laws.
There is probably not another country in the world where distribution of income is so unequal. Africans was are 70% of the population, receive less than 20% of all income and live on 13% of the land. More than half of them live in white South Africa, in cities and suburban townships or on white farms, the remainder are crowded into "tribal reserves," known as "homelands." Those not living in reserves are nevertheless regarded as inhabitants of reserves and have no right of tenure in white South Africa. If a married man loses his job, his whole family can be ordered to live on a reserve even though his wife still has a job and his children are at school.
Since control of the land and economic power is in the hands of the whites, foreign investors in South Africa automatically develop a vested interest in maintaining the status quo.
Large corporations enroll whites from Europe to fill top jobs in South Africa and non-whites, despite personal qualifications, may not supervise whites.
Apartheid policies have been blamed for the country's growing economic difficulties. South African industry has not been able to make full and effective use of the large and willing reservoir of labour that it available to it. Better jobs and better pay for the African majority would not be bought at the expense of the European worker. On the contrary, "African advancement could certainly make possible much more rapid advancement for Europeans also," says Harry Oppenheimer, Chairman of the Anglo American Corporation of South Africa.
As dependence on black workers increases, more and more of them move into urban areas, fear grows in the minds of the white minority, and repression gets worse. Time is running out.
What the Dean of Johannesburg would most like to do is to discourage immigration to South Africa. Voices of African resistance too, have called for economic isolation until racial policies are changed. They are aware of the hardship that economic boycott would entail.
The late Chief Albert Luthuli, Nobel prize winner and former head of the African National Congress, who was, for many years, forbidden to speak or write, said, "economic boycott is a method which would shorten the day of bloodshed and that the suffering would be a price we are willing to pay. In any case, we suffer already, our children are often undernourished and at times we die at the whim of a policeman." Canadian Anglicans have been asked by their General Synod, "to demonstrate their concern for all their South African brothers by refusing to purchase or consume any product manufactured, processed or grown directly or indirectly in or through the Republic of South Africa."
The Central Committee of the World Council of Churches meeting in August this year doubled its special fund to combat racism and voted to liquidate its financial stake in all corporations doing business with white-ruled African countries.
The Primate of the Anglican Church of Canada, the Most Reverend E.W. Scott says, in welcoming Canon ffrench-Beytagh, "some of the creative church leaders in South Africa have voiced with courage the Judeo-Christian conviction that law and order should be the servant of justice not the structure of oppression and discrimination. This principle clearly challenges apartheid. Here on this continent, we need to recognize that the same principle should lead us to be constantly evaluating the goals being sought by those who call for law and order - are they seeking justice or preservation of privilege?"
* Toronto, Halifax, Fredericton, Montreal, Ottawa, Quebec City, Kingston, Hamilton, London, Winnipeg, Saskatoon, Vancouver, Victoria, Edmonton and Calgary.
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For more information, contact:
The Rev. Robert D. MacRae
Secretary, The Primate's World Relief and Development Fund
Churches, as legitimate corporate shareholders, have made presentations concerning investments in South Africa to the annual meetings of Canada's Banks before. They will do it again this year, but this time there is a difference.
There is growing support amongst Canadian "opinion-makers" for the Churches' stand. In fact a surprising number of well-known Canadians, many not noted in the past for their agreement with the Church, are backing its stand on this matter:
"I wish to support the position taken by the Anglican, United, Roman Catholic and Lutheran Churches calling for a halt to Canadian Bank loans to the government of South Africa and its agencies, until the imposition of apartheid is discontinued."
A partial list of those who have signed the above statement is enclosed.
Here is a sampling of their remarks:
"I support that churches' position very strongly indeed, and I am glad to know that such action is being taken by so many of the Canadian Churches." - Margaret Laurence (Author)
"I can only sign on a personal basis and not in my official job capacity...I am in complete support of the position of the Churches with regard to Canadian bank loans to the Government of South Africa." - Kathleen Ruff (Human Rights Branch, B.C. Ministry of Labour)
"I appreciate very much the highly intelligent and practical approach which the Taskforce [on the Churches and Corporate Responsibility] is making to the whole problem, and I wish them every success with it." - Lloyd R. Shaw (Chairman, L.E. Shaw Ltd. Halifax)
"Your letter and the accompanying folder are excellent, and I am delighted to add my name to the group of signers who support the churches' position." - Thomas L. Perry, M.D. (Professor of Pharmacology, U.B.C.)
"I am deeply concerned about the worsening situation in Southern Africa and, as a Canadian, the involvement of Canadian banks, mining companies and other business interests in South Africa and Namibia. I welcome the stand taken by the Canadian churches." - J. King Gordon (Past President, U.S. Association in Canada)
"I am please to associate myself with the Churches' business and have signed the slip." - Emmett M. Hall, C.C., Q.C., D.C.L., D.Med. (Saskatoon)
"I would be happy to have my name added to your list of supporters...and hope that your efforts will be effective in changing the role of the banks, and also of our government. Please note that I have signed...as an individual." - Kay MacPherson (President, the National Action Committee on the Status of Women)
The Churches will be represented at shareholders' meetings of all the major banks. Following is the schedule:
Toronto-Dominion Bank, Wednesday, December 7, 11am, Toronto-Dominion Centre Cinema
Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce, Tuesday, December 13, 11 am, Commerce Hall
Bank of Nova Scotia, Wednesday, December 14, 11 am, Hotel Nova Scotia, Halifax
Royal Bank, Thursday, January 12, 11 am, Montreal
Bank of Montreal, Monday, January 16, 11 am, Chateau Champlain, Montreal
The full text of the statements will be available on the day of the meetings. The statements will vary because, contrary to the impression given by the banking community, there is evidence that there are differences in the attitude towards investment in South Africa on the part of some of the banks. It should be noted that some international banks in both Europe and the USA have made public policy statements on this matter. No major Canadian bank has, to this point.
For further information, contact:
Taskforce on the Churches and Corporate Responsibility,
600 Jarvis Street,
The Rev. Peter Hamel,
Anglican Church of Canada,
924-9192 ext. 248
I wish to support the position taken by the Anglican, United, Roman Catholic and Lutheran Churches calling for a halt to Canadian bank loans to the government of South Africa and its agencies, until the imposition of apartheid is discontinued.
R.T. Affleck, Architect
Gregory Baum, Theologian, St. Michael's College
Pierre Berton, Author and Broadcaster
Edward Broadbent, Leader, New Democratic Party of Canada
Rosemary Brown, Member of B.C. Legislative Assembly
June Callwood, Broadcaster and Journalist
Dr. K. Chetty, Canada-Southern Africa Relief Committee
Pierre De Bane, M.P. for Matine, P.Q.
Geoffrey H. Durrant, Faculty of English, University of British Columbia
Georges Erasmus, President, Indian Brotherhood of the N.W.T.
Gordon Fairweather, Chairman, Canadian Human Rights Commission
Dr. Laing Ferguson, President, Amnesty International
Eugene Forsey, Senator
James Foulkes, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of British Columbia
Carole Geller, Saskatchewan Human Rights Commission
King Gordon, Executive Member and Past President of United Nations Assoc. of Canada
Len Guy, B.C. Federation of Labour
Emmett Hall, Honourary President, Canadian Civil Liberties Association
Wilson Head, Scientist, York University, Toronto
Marlene Hunter, M.D.
Mel Hurtig, Publisher, Edmonton
William Hutt, Actor
Dr. A.M. Inglis, Canada-Southern Africa Relief Committee
Bruce Kidd, Professor, Physical Education, University of Toronto
William Kilbourn, Professor of History, York University
Laurier LaPierre, University Professor and Broadcaster
Margaret Laurence, Author
David Lewis, past leader, the New Democratic Party of Canada
The Very Rev. Angus J. MacQueen, Chancellor, Mt. Allison University, N.S.
The Very Rev. N. Bruce McLeod, Commissioner, Ontario Human Rights Commission
Bennett Metcalfe, Journalist, B.C.
Joe Morris, President, Canadian Labour Congress
Christina Newman, Executive Editor, Saturday Night
Hon. Howard R. Pawley, former Manitoba Attorney General
Thomas Perry, Professor of Pharmacology, University of British Columbia
Walter Pitman, President, Ryerson Polytechical Institute, Toronto
Harry Rankin, Rankin & Company, Barristers and Solicitors, Vancouver, B.C.
Dr. Peter Richardson, Principal, University College, Toronto
Abraham Rotstein, Dept. of Political Economy, University of Toronto
Kathleen Ruff, Director, B.C. Human Rights Code
William Saywell, Principal, Innis College, Toronto
Lloyd R. Shaw, Chairman, L.E. Shaw Limited, Halifax, N.S.
Don Taylor, United Steelworkers of America
Murray Thomson, President, Canadian Council of International Co-operation
The Rev. G.E. Topshee, Director, Coady International Institute, N.S.
David Walsh, President, Realco Property Ltd., Toronto
Patrick Watson, Broadcaster and Journalist
Robin Wilson, Executive Director, Canadian University Service Overseas
Sandra Witherspoon, M.D., Vancouver, B.C.
* positions given for identification purposes only.