"The primacy has evolved throughout the history of the church. In 1893, the church's first primate was a diocesan bishop chosen from among the metropolitans whose only specific duties were to serve as president of General Synod and of the House of Bishops. Since that time, the office of primate has steadily grown to encompass a national episcopal ministry, in which the primate serves as a figure of unity and a reflection of the diversity, challenges and ministries of the church" (p. 8). "Misunderstandings about the primate's role are common, according to Archdeacon Paul Feheley, who has served as principal secretary to the last two primates. Anglicans on different sides of various debates will often send letters to [the Primate Archbishop] Hiltz asking for him to intervene in order to resolve an issue. But, Feheley notes, metropolitans actually have far more influence over matters than the primate. ... 'If you're looking for a whole ton of power, it's not the position to go for', he adds" (p. 8). "'Many of our early primates died from overwork', says [retired Bishop Michael] Ingham. 'The job is just too large for an incumbent to exercise responsibilities as a diocesan bishop as well. This has only become more true over time, rather than less. In 1969, General Synod adopted the model of a detached primacy, in which primates were no longer burdened by the responsibilities of a diocesan bishop" (p. 9). "[Former Primate Michael] Peers traces the seeds of reform to the 1830s, when Thomas Fuller proposed a synodical model of church government, in which dioceses would be led by a synod, or governing body of licensed clergy, lay representatives from the diocese's parishes, ex officio members, and the bishops. Over the following decades, this became the model the church follows today" (p. 9). "An 1893 [Solemn] Declaration which established the Church of England in Canada as a separate and independent body described the church as being 'in full communion' with the Church of England (as opposed to 'an integral portion'), Peers noted. ... 'In a time when there has been pressure to make the Communion more monolithic, more a single entity presided over by primates, I continue to look to this foundational document'" (p. 9). "'Our primates have been and are people of exemplary faith and integrity, asked to hold together the wide diversity of our Anglican Church of Canada with its challenges of geography, cultural and theological differences', [Bishop Linda] Nicholls says. 'Our primate is a mirror for the life of our church, and deserves our deepest commitment of prayer and support'" (p. 9).
Article includes a large colour photo of the primatial cross with caption: "The primatial cross is the only official symbol of the primate of the Anglican Church of Canada. It was presented to General Synod in 1937 after the submission of numerous designs. The cross is made of silver gilt and features the arms of General Synod and of the four original dioceses of the Canadian church".
Charles Inglis, the first bishop of Nova Scotia, arrived in Halifax on 16 October 1787. One of Inglis' first duties was "to gather the clergy of the Diocese to a particular locale for the issuing of his charge, or official instructions. This time-honoured process is usually referred to as a Visitation" (p. 25). "The practice of the Visitation, whether it be annual, triennial, or at some other period of time, was based on a standard set of practices and procedures. Central to the entire process was the creation and receipt of three sets of documents connected with the episcopal office. First, there was the notice of the Visitation; second there was the articles of inquiry; and third, there was the 'Acta' which included the minutes of proceedings, an inventory of ornaments, vestments, books of the church, financial arrangements, and a general survey of the fabric. Of the three, arguably the most important were the articles of inquiry of the 'Questions'" (p. 26). Inglis sent out a "Letter & Questions" to the clergy of his diocese in March 1788. The request would "have provided the clergy with a feeling that they actually had a hand in the running of the diocese. Such a questionnaire that asked for their input on a wide variety of matters, both of this world and the next, would undoubtedly have appealed to their sense of democracy" (p. 26). The bishop's letter and questions did not reach the Rev. John Stuart, rector of Catarqui (Kingston, Ontario), until September 1789, after he returned from attending the Visitation in June 1789. The 1788 questionnaire sent to Stuart is the only copy to have survived. "The author would like to thank Brian Cuthbertson, Inglis' biographer, who sent a copy of Inglis' 'Letter' to the Diocese of Ontario Archives, thereby re-uniting the Bishop's 'Questions' and the Rector's 'Answers' for the first time in two hundred years" (p. 40).
Article include the complete text of Inglis' "Letter" and the "Rector's" (John Stuart's) answers. Questionnaire divided into sections: Title I: Concerning the extent and population of Parishes -- Title II: Concerning Churches -- Title III: Concerning the Celebration of Divine Service, and other Ministerial Duties -- Title IV: Concerning Glebes, other property of the Church -- Title V: Concerning Churchwardens -- Title VI: Concerning Schools -- Title VII: Concerning Confirmation -- Title VIII.
Dean Peter Wall put forward two resolutions relation to Faith Worship, and Ministry. The first resolution relates to the report Gifts for Episcopal Ministry and the second concerning the report of the task force on Physician Assisted Dying.
Be it resolved:
That this Council of General Synod receive the report, Gifts for Episcopal Ministry and commend it, along with the appropriate introductory materials, be sent to the diocese for study and as a resource to assist in Episcopal electoral processes.
Bishop Goodman introduced the Report of the ad hoc Committee on "Guidelines on Bishops." Bishop Peers and Bishop K. Clarke assisted with the presentation. The members of the House made a number of useful comments for the consideration of the ad hoc Committee.
That the Report on "Guidelines and Bishops" be received. CARRIED
During discussion it was agreed that more uniform national policy is needed in the election of Bishops and in the Ordering of a Bishop to assist the Diocesan.
Concern was expressed regarding the retention of the title of Archbishop after retirement.
Moved by Archbishop Garnsworthy, seconded by Bishop Ragg,
That Section V(7) on "Assistant to the Bishop" be removed. CARRIED
Moved by Bishop Nock, seconded by Bishop Goodings,
That in Section V(6) "Assistant Bishop" the word "regular" be omitted. CARRIED
Report of the Ad Hoc Committee on "Guidelines on Bishops"
(See House of Bishops' Minutes, October 1980, p.16; November 1969, p.14 and Appendix B. pp.29/35)
Other Related Material
1. Hilchey letter to Goodman - April 16/80
2. Goodman Report of House of Bishops - June/80 which lists all relevant passages in House of Bishops' Minutes
3. "Report on a Constitution for the House of Bishops" (Goodman) December, 1972 (recommending that there be neither constitution nor canon in this connection). This was a complete review of developments up to that time, including certain other recommendations as well as the one noted above. It included as well a 1971 report on the subject, and correspondence with Chancellor Ryan, Bishop Howe, Rev. Fr. Coleman (recommended by Bishop Howe as having expertise on the subject), and Dr. Conrad Swan, York Herald of Arms.
In order to assist any subsequent research in this area it is important to keep an up-to-date list of earlier studies and reports - somehow or other the comprehensive report of 1972 seemed to have been overlooked by myself (who made it!) and other last Spring when we started back at "square one". In that report two objectives were set out as follows:
A. To maintain the independence and integrity of the House of Bishops so that it may fulfill its responsibility to Christ and His Church.
B. To enable the House of Bishops to relate effectively with the General Synod when it is in session and with the National Executive Council and other National Committees. (Section IV - A of the report)
Section IV - B has certain other recommendations which might still be of some interest.
This report of 1972 taken with the subsequent listing of all references in the House of Bishops' Minutes of June 1980 might be regarded as a definitive document on the subject to date.
The Meeting of the Ad Hoc Committee on the Guidelines
Monday, March 23, 1981 (Calgary) - Bishops Clarke, Peers and Goodman
1. There are a great many other guidelines having to do with agreed policies in pastoral and administrative action (eg. mixed marriages, Christian Initiation, (agreed?!) etc., etc.). This present committee was not concerned with these but with the status and responsibility of the Episcopate and in particular with the document (on that subject Appendix B pp.29-35, House of Bishops' Minutes, November, 1969 - "Guidelines on Bishops".)
2. There is a developed conviction that it would be inadvisable to have either a Constitution for the House of Bishops or a Canon on the House of Bishops. This is perhaps the one clear conviction which has come out of successive studies and debates.
3. Originally (1961) the material numbered twenty (XX) sections, by 1969 the number of sections has been reduced to ten (X) but our study revealed that most if not all of the earlier material was still present in the revised text, having been collated, edited and rearranged.
4. In the time at our disposal we were able to deal with the first seven (VII) sections of the 1969 report. If the House wishes us to continue we must report on the last three sections at some later date.
5. Our work resulted in some considerable re-wording, renumbering, and the addition as well as the deletion of some material.
6. Certain Provincial and General Synod Canons must be reckoned with in regard to the Guidelines, to the best of our ability we attempted to do this.
Suggested Revision of Material in Appendix B - House of Bishops Minutes, November 1969, pp.29-35 - Guidelines on Bishops
Guidelines on Bishops
Note: The doctrine of episcopacy is contained in the Ordinal. What follows concerns episcope in practice.
1. The Anglican Church of Canada holds and teaches that from the Apostles' time there have been these Orders of Ministers in Christ's Church: Bishops, Priests (Presbyters) and Deacons; and no person shall be accounted or taken to be a lawful Bishop, Priest or Deacon in the Anglican Church of Canada, or permitted to execute any of the offices attached to the same, except such person be called, examined and admitted thereunto according to the Ordinal or has had episcopal consecration or ordination in some Church whose orders are recognized and accepted by the Anglican Church of Canada.
2. Before any person is consecrated to the episcopate, the Metropolitan of the Province must be satisfied that the person possesses the qualifications for the office. The Bishop-elect must be a Priest of not less than five years' standing, and thirty years of age; of good character, piety, learning; with a zeal for souls, prudence; sound in health of body and mind.
3. The Constitutive elements in the making of a Bishop in the Anglican Church of Canada are:
(1) in the ordering of a Diocesan, the prior consent of the Metropolitan to the arrangements for the election of said Bishop.
In the ordering of a Bishop to assist the Diocesan, the prior consent of the Metropolitan and the other Bishops of the Province to the arrangements for the election of said Bishop.
(2) election of the Synod or Electoral Body of the Diocese in accordance with the operative canon of the Ecclesiastical Province and Diocese concerned. Clerical and Lay Delegates vote separately, by ballot. Election shall require at least a majority of votes cast by the Clergy, and by the Laity.
(3) free acceptance by the person elected within a space of 14 days after his receiving notification of his election.
(4) ratification of the election by the Metropolitan and Bishops of the Province as prescribed in the Provincial Canons. (This ratification constitutes the Bishop-elect, after his Consecration, a member of the Provincial House of Bishops, the National House and the Order of Bishops within the General Synod.)
(5) consecration according to the form approved by General Synod, with the Metropolitan or some other Bishop delegated by him as the Chief Consecrator, assisted by at least two other Bishops exercising their offices in two Dioceses of the Province other than that of the Chief Consecrator. (In no circumstances shall there be less than three Bishops taking part in the Consecration of a Bishop.)
(6) registration of the Election and Consecration of the Bishop in the Registers of the Diocese, the Province and of General Synod.
4. (Note: since this section is a theological commentary we were concerned as to whether it belongs in the "Guidelines". We have left it in with some emendation of the ultimate paragraph. If it is decided to remove it, the following sections must be renumbered.)
The effects of Ordination, and its obligations, are permanent, in the same way that the effects and obligations of Baptism are permanent.
(1) The Bishop was made Deacon, and after his Consecration he still remains a servant. His Diaconate is extended and made more onerous, for he now becomes a servant of the servants of God.
(2) He was ordained Priest. He never ceases to be a Priest. Among his clergy, he is an equal in all respects as to his Priesthood. His obligations to preach the Gospel and to minister the Sacraments of Christ never cease.
(3) The unity of the ordained ministry lies in this common priesthood of the Gospel and Sacraments, and in the apostolate and mission of the whole Church to the world. Among the clergy and people of the Church, the Bishop is Chief Pastor.
5. Bishops are equal in regard to their consecration and office; they may differ in their jurisdiction. These differences in jurisdictions are described below.
(1) The Primate - a Bishop who is elected by General Synod and installed as Chief Pastor to the National Church, President of the House of Bishops, of the General Synod and of the Executive Council, with preeminence throughout the Church, but without territorial jurisdiction. The Primate bears the title of Archbishop.
(2) Metropolitan - a Bishop who has jurisdiction not only within his own Diocese but also a jurisdiction and preeminence throughout the ecclesiastical province as defined in the Canons of that Province. He bears the title of Archbishop.
(3) Diocesan - a Bishop who has jurisdiction and preeminence within a Diocese and may also be referred to as the Ordinary of that Diocese.
(4) Coadjutor - a Bishop elected to assist a Diocesan Bishop with right of succession on the death or resignation of that Diocesan.
(5) Suffragan - a person elected and consecrated to assist the Diocesan.
(6) Assistant Bishop - a Bishop already consecrated, appointed by the Diocesan and the Executive Council of a Diocese, and in receipt of regular Diocesan remuneration. Such appointment may be held together with the care of a parish or other ministry within the Diocese.
(7) Assistant to the Bishop - a Bishop already consecrated who is appointed by the Diocesan to assist him in his episcopal ministry, subject to any limitations inherent in Diocesan, Provincial or General Synod Canons.
NOTE: The following is a new section.
6. The Bishop's responsibilities within the Council of the Church.
(1) In the categories listed in Section V (above), the Primate, the Metropolitans, the Diocesans, the Coadjutors, Suffragans and assistant Bishops are members of the National and Provincial Houses of Bishops, and of the Order of Bishops within General Synod, with voice and vote implicit to each membership. The expenses incurred by attendance at meetings of these bodies are the responsibility of General or Provincial Synod as the case may be.
(2) Assistants to the Bishop, Bishops who have resigned and/or retired and who are in good standing are members of the National and Provincial Houses of Bishops with voice and vote. They are also members of the Order of Bishops within General Synod, but without vote. The expenses incurred by attendance at meetings of these bodies are the responsibility of the individual Bishop.
NOTE: Former VI becomes VII and is completely rewritten with close attention to its content but with a new form.
7. A Diocesan in relation to his Diocese.
(1) Inherent in his Diocesan jurisdiction the Diocesan Bishop has the following authority and responsibilities:
- to function as the chief liturgical officer.
- to preside at the Eucharist.
- to preside at the ordination of Deacons and Priests.
- the laying on of hands in confirmation.
- the licensing and institution of clergy.
- the consecration of churches, chapels and burial grounds.
- to visit any and every parish or institution within the Diocese and to review its life and work.
- to review the life and work of those clergy and laity who hold his licence or commission.
- to summon all Synods, Diocesan Conferences and Executive Committees.
- to preside at same, and to delegate said presidency subject to the Canons of his Diocese.
- to attend to the discipline of the Church as provided in Diocesan, Provincial and General Synod Canons.
- to share fully in the sound administration of the Diocese.
(2) The authority and jurisdiction that the Bishop possesses within the Diocese are constitutional:
(a) in being exercised under the Canons of the Diocese, of the Ecclesiastical Province, and of General Synod, and
(b) in being shared with clergy and laity elected to Synod and its Boards and Committees, and
(c) in his obligation to consult with the Metropolitan and fellow Bishops in the Province, and with the Primate and the Canadian House of Bishops, on important matters of Faith, Worship, Order, discipline, and the Mission of the Church.
(3)(a) Only under the most exceptional circumstances, and on a temporary basis, may a Bishop accept any other appointment with remuneration, and then only with the consent of the Diocesan Executive and the Metropolitan. This consent may be recalled by either party at any time, provided due notice is given.
(b) It is the duty of the Diocese to provide its Bishop (or Bishops) with an adequate stipend and allowances.
(4) All Bishops are required to be resident within their Diocese for at least nine months in each calendar year. In the assessment of this obligation consideration should be given to the time spent representing the Diocese, the Province or the National Church in international, national and provincial meetings.
(5)(a) All Bishops shall be entitled to three months' Leave of Absence from their Diocese with full stipend and allowances on the completion of five years service, and thereafter three months for every five years completed.
(b) The Leave of Absence shall not be cumulative from one five-year period to the next.
(c) Any Bishop taking Leave of Absence, shall report to the Diocesan Executive and the Metropolitans on the measures he is taking for his ministry and Administration during his absence. The Metropolitan shall satisfy himself that the measures are sufficient, and shall take any necessary steps to ensure that the measures agreed to are being duly maintained.
8. A Diocesan Bishop in Relation to the Clergy.
(1) Among the clergy who hold his license, the Bishop is the Chief Pastor, and Chief Liturgical Officer.
(2) The Bishop shall arrange for periodic retreats and conferences of the Clergy for their spiritual and intellectual renewal, and arrange for their post ordination study and training.
(3) The Bishop shall exercise a pastoral concern for the families of the Clergy, and according to the means at his discretion assist them at times of their special need.
(4) In considering recourse to the Diocesan and General Synod Canons on discipline the Bishop shall not proceed to definitive action without consulting his Chancellor, and appropriate senior Clergy of the Diocese.
"That the other recommendations be held over and re-examined after the first meeting in Ottawa. The Committee further recommends that one of the two meetings of the House of Bishops in each subsequent year be held in Ottawa, and that two days of that meeting be normally set aside for continuing education within this category." CARRIED
(See Appendix B.)
Continuing Education for Bishops: Some Proposals
The following recommendations regarding continuing education opportunities for Bishops were developed at the first meeting of the new House of Bishops Committee on Continuing Education, held in Winnipeg, December 19, 1977.
Present for the meeting were:
Bishop Valentine, Chairman; Bishop Peers; Bishop Goodings and the Rev. Richard Johns, Staff.
Bishop Frame and Bishop Hill are members of the Committee, but were not able to attend this first meeting.
The Committee focussed its attention upon three general areas of concern:
I Preparation and Support of New Bishops
II Useful Skills for the Exercise of Episcope
III Information regarding the World and Theological and Biblical Disciplines
Eight categories were identified as being important to being explored by a new Bishop. In most of these the systematic experience of other Bishops is invaluable. In a few, information must be obtained from other persons with special responsibility and/or expertise. A few others require the solitary discipline of prayerful reflection on the part of a new Bishop himself. The categories are as follows:
A. Information necessary for the Exercise of the Episcopal Ministry
This includes general information about pensions, bursaries for Theological and continuing education and the role and areas of responsibility of the national office. It also includes information about the various resources that are available to a Bishop. In addition, it includes information about the conduct of Confirmations, Inductions, and other Episcopal services. It should probably include information about the writing of Episcopal letters to the clergy and/or to the Dioceses. It would be important to include the various standards and guidelines that have been developed, from time to time, by the House of Bishops.
B. Pressure Areas
It would be helpful for the new Bishop to explore several items under this category. Some assistance regarding appropriate ways to manage conflict, when it arises in the Diocese, would be useful. Similarly, suggestions of how to deal with manipulative people would be useful. It would also be important to explore some of the criteria to be considered in regard to the movement of clergy. In all of this, it would be important to discuss the gracious and effective use of power. Further, it would be important to help a new Bishop prepare for a certain degree of negativity toward the Office of Bishop, and toward the House of Bishops. On the other side of the coin, it would be useful to explore some of the ways of receiving respect for the Office of Bishop, and to even a certain amount of personal adulation. It might be helpful, also, to discuss the Bishop's relationship with the laity of the Diocese.
C. Spiritual Dimension
Under this category, it is important that appropriate resources be provided for spiritual reflection prior to Consecration. Equally important, attention should be given to assisting the new Bishop to develop resources for his continuing pilgrimage toward spiritual maturity.
D. Personnel Dimensions
There are a number of fairly specific items needing attention under this category. They include a discussion of ways to support the clergy of the Diocese, and ways of dealing with difficult clergy. Attention should be given to the appropriate methods of handling vacancies. It would be very important to spend time in regard to the whole question of discipline. This should include some appropriate discussion of the meaning of discipline, and what types of discipline are real and appropriate. For some new Bishops, it might be helpful to have some opportunity to explore appropriate ways of working with a Diocesan office staff.
E. Inter-personal Dimensions
This also is a category with a number of specific items. Some assistance would be helpful in regard to appropriate ways to relate to one's brother Bishops. Guidance from more senior Bishops in regard to the question of loneliness and isolation from the clergy is important. New Bishops would probably welcome a general discussion regarding the varieties of resources that can be available to one in the exercise of an Episcopal ministry. Suggestions regarding how to react effectively when being over protected by clergy and/or laity might be important. It is suggested that there be some discussion of how best to relate to a Cathedral congregation, and its Dean. In some cases, it might be important to explore appropriate relationships with those of one's colleagues who are not elected. The whole area of the effect upon one's family should be carefully explored. It might well be useful to discuss the possibility of the selection of a personal mentor.
F. Leadership Dimension
A number of categories could be explored here. Some reflection on a balance between maintenance tasks on the one hand and vision and planning on the other would be useful. This might well lead into a further discussion of the role of the Bishop as prophetic leader. The category might also include such very practical matters as the style of parish visitation which would be most appropriate.
G. Administrative Dimension
There are several quite practical items needing attention under this category. They would certainly include the rather large question of how to manage one's time and travel. Some attention should be given to the question of correspondence and office procedures. Each Bishop Elect would probably have some specific areas which he would like to explore under this category.
H. Theological Dimension
It is very important that each new Bishop have an opportunity to begin the process of integrating his own understanding of Episcopacy, and the Ministry which he is about to exercise. Some honest exploration and reflection regarding the ongoing tension within the Church between Episcopal and Synodical Dimensions should be included.
Recommendations Regarding New Bishops
The Committee suggests that three specific resources be provided for all new Bishops:
A. Pre-Consecration Seminar
The focus of this Seminar, probably lasting two or three days, would be upon the informational area, the spiritual dimension, and the theological dimension. Some work would also be done in the interpersonal and administrative dimensions.
B. Seminar for Recently Consecrated Bishops
Approximately six months after Consecration, an additional Seminar would be provided. Here again, the time span would probably be two or three days. The focus on this occasion would be on pressure areas, the personnel dimension and the leadership dimension. Some additional time would be spent in the informational area. Also, additional work would be done in the inter-personal dimension, and time would be allowed for some significant theological reflection.
C. Support of Episcopal Couples
Each newly elected Bishop would be encouraged to developed his own appropriate opportunity for reflection on this new ministry and its effect upon his wife and family. Some individuals may choose to spend two or three days alone with their wife thinking and planning together. In other cases, couples may wish to spend two or three days with another Bishop and his wife. While flexibility would be encouraged, each Bishop Elect who is married would be expected to do some disciplined work in this area with his wife.
Several skill areas were identified under this category. It is thought that opportunities for study and training in these areas would be useful for Bishops in their ongoing work and responsibility. These include the areas of marriage breakdown among clergy, personnel procedures, including relevant legal information; the exploration of the prophetic role of the House of Bishops, and ways of coping and living with diversity and tension. In the latter area, it is recognized that the presence of movements within a Diocese can, on occasion, lead beyond diversity to tension and division. Great skill is required to prevent this from happening.
Some of these skill areas could well be explored in the context of a regular meeting of the House of Bishops. Others might better lend themselves to regional seminars of six to eight Bishops.
Recommendations regarding useful Skills for the Exercise of Episcope
The Committee recommends that one full day be set aside at the November, 1978 meeting for work in this area. The specific recommendation of the Committee is that the areas of marriage breakdown among clergy, personnel procedures, and new and renewed movements serve as the subjects for that day. Where necessary, outside persons with particular expertise would be asked to lead study and deliberation.
The Committee further recommends that one full day at one of the meetings of the House of Bishops each year be set aside for work in designated skill areas.
In addition, the Committee requests authorization to develop a proposal for a regional workshop which could be available for groups of six to eight Bishops. Because of the importance of the Lambeth Conference as a continuing education event this year, it is suggested that the proposal be developed some time after Lambeth.
The areas identified in this category include the following:
A. Occasional political briefings regarding national and international affairs
This should undoubtedly include briefings by people at the Cabinet level in the Federal and Provincial Governments, and representatives of other countries, probably at the Ambassadorial level.
B. The Arts
This should include presentations by important persons in the Arts which would indicate the current themes in Arts and Literature
Occasional presentations by leading persons within this discipline could enable the Bishops to be apprised of current thinking in this field.
D. New Dimensions in Theological Thinking
This area should certainly include presentations by people with expertise in the theological discipline. Opportunity should be provided for information regarding new movements, such as liberation theology.
E. New Dimensions in Biblical Understanding
Here again, experts within this discipline could be available to the House from time to time, for updating.
F. Third World Briefing
It seems important that Bishops have an opportunity to hear directly from leaders of countries outside Canada. This is particularly true of countries where we are involved through missionary efforts, or in which we become involved because of our social and Christian concerns.
G. Constitution and National Unity Issues
Because of the major importance of issues in this area, an opportunity should be provided for the Bishops to learn as much as possible about the thinking of persons in leadership roles regarding these issues.
Current trends in both public and private education should be presented from time to time, for the edification of Bishops individually, and the House of Bishops corporately.
I. New Movements
The Committee feels that it would be valuable for the House to have an opportunity to be kept aware of the development of new and renewed movements such as Spiritual Healing, the Cursillo Movement, the House Church, etc.
Recommendations re Information regarding the World and Theological and Biblical Disciplines
The Committee proposes that the February, 1979 House of Bishops Meeting be held in Ottawa. The Committee further recommends that two days of that meeting be set aside for intensive work in one or two of the areas identified in this category. The Committee is willing to undertake the necessary planning and preparation of such an event. It is suggested that the areas in this category be given some priority by the House, for the guidance of the Committee.
The Committee further recommends that one of the two meetings of the House of Bishops in each subsequent year be held in Ottawa, and that two days of that meeting be normally set aside for continuing education within this category.
The Committee respectfully requests the House of Bishops to reflect upon and discuss the recommendations included in this report. The Committee stands ready to develop and implement the recommendations according to direction from the House.
The report was presented by the Archbishop of Algoma
"That the report be received."
The Committee Chairman in submitting his report, reminded the House of the background of the report.
The committee on Coadjutor, Suffragan and Assistant Bishops had presented their first report in Banff, 1963 (pages 10 and 11, 1963).
This report arose out of a resolution:
"That the Primate be requested to appoint a small Committee of this House to consider the episcopate in Canada, with particular relation to Suffragan, Co-adjutor and Assistant Bishops."
The Committee had also been asked "To submit a report and Canon at a special meeting of the House which shall be called by the Primate at a time and place to be decided by the Primate."
The Canon submitted sought to solve questions which remained unanswered. There were other points which had been raised on which no unanimous decision has been reached.
e.g. Should there be an Electoral College set up in the election of all Diocesan Bishops?
Can we come to a unanimous decision regarding the use of traditional episcopal signatures?
Is it true that Diocesan bishops desire more authority in the appointment and election of Assistant Bishops?
The proposed canon which follows was discussed by sections.
PROPOSED CANON ON BISHOPS
I The Anglican Church of Canada holds and teaches that from the Apostles' time there have been these Orders in the Ministry of Christ's Church: Bishops, Priests (Presbyters) and Deacons; and no man shall be accounted or taken to be a lawful Bishop, Priest, or Deacon in the Anglican Church of Canada, or permitted to execute any of the offices attached to the same, except he be called, tried, examined and admitted thereunto according to the Ordinal, or has had formerly episcopal consecration or ordination in some Church whose orders are recognized and accepted by the Anglican Church of Canada.
II Before any person is consecrated to the episcopate, the Metropolitan of the Province must satisfy himself that the person possesses the qualifications for the office. The Bishop-elect must be a Priest of not less than five years standing, and thirty years of age. He must possess good character, piety, learning, a zeal for souls and prudence. He should be sound in health of body and mind.
III The constitutive elements in the making of a Bishop in the Anglican Church of Canada are:
- (a) In the ordering of a Bishop for a Diocese that has become vacant, (that is, the ordering of Diocesan Bishop), the concurrence of the Metropolitan in the arrangements for the electing body; and in the ordering of a Bishop to serve as an assistant to the Diocesan Bishop, the consent of the Metropolitan and Bishops of the Province to the decision of a Synod to provide their Bishop with episcopal assistance.
- (b) Election by an absolute majority of the clergy, and an absolute majority of the Lay Delegates to Synod, voting separately, at a Synod summoned in accordance with the Canons of the Diocese on the Election of Bishops.
- (c) Free acceptance by the person elected within a space of seven days after his receiving notification of his election as Bishop.
- (d) Ratification of the election by the Metropolitan and Bishops of the Province in accordance with the method of ratification prescribed in the Provincial Canons. This ratification constitutes the Bishop elect, after his Consecration, a member of the Provincial House of Bishops.
- (e) Consecration of the Bishop-elect according to the "From of Ordaining of a Bishop" by the Metropolitan, or by some bishop appointed to act in his behalf, assisted by at least two other Bishops, holding jurisdiction in two Dioceses of the Provinces other than that of the Metropolitan. If circumstances are such as to make it impossible to provide the two other Bishops from other Dioceses within the Province, it is permissible that they should be found elsewhere, but in no circumstances shall there be less than three Bishops taking part in the Consecration of a Bishop.
- (f) The registration of the Election and Consecration of the Bishop in the Registers of the Diocese, the Province and of General Synod.
IV The effects of Ordination and its obligations, are permanent, in the same way that the effects and obligations of Baptism are permanent.
- (a) The Bishop was made Deacon, and after his Consecration he still remains a servant. His Diaconate is extended and made more onerous, for he now becomes a servant of the servants of God.
- (b) He was ordained Priest. He never ceases to be a Priest. Among his clergy, he is an equal in all respects as to his Priesthood. His obligation to preach the Gospel and to minister the Sacraments of Christ never cease.
- (c) The unity of the ordained ministry lies in this common priesthood of the Gospel and Sacraments, and in the apostolate and mission of the whole Church to the world. Among the clergy and pastors of the Church, the Bishop is Chief Pastor, the "Pastor Pastorum." It appertains specially to his office to teach and uphold sound doctrine, and to banish and drive away all erroneous and strange opinions; and, himself an example of righteous and godly living, it is his duty to set forward and maintain quietness, love and peace among all men.
V All bishops are equal in regard to their consecration and office; they differ in their jurisdiction. Among Bishops we distinguish the following.
- (a) Bishops that have pre-eminence and jurisdiction not only within their own Dioceses, but throughout an Ecclesiastical Province are called "Metropolitans," and bear the title of "Archbishop." The jurisdiction is such as is defined in the Canons of the Province.
- (b) Bishops that have jurisdiction in a Diocese are called "Diocesans" or "Ordinaries."
- (c) Bishops elected to assist their Diocesan include the following classifications: Coadjutors, Suffragans with Title, Suffragans without Title.
- (d) Bishops who after resigning from their episcopal office, hold Special Licences.
VI Every Bishop has within his Diocese jurisdiction as Ordinary.
VII Every Bishop is, within his Diocese, the Principal Minister, and to him belongs the right, of celebrating the rites of Ordination and Confirmation; of Consecrating new Churches, Chapels, Churchyards and Burial Grounds; of instituting to all vacant benefices; of admitting by licence to all other vacant ecclesiastical offices; of holding visitations to the end that he may get some good knowledge of the state, sufficiency, and ability of the clergy and other persons whom he is to visit; of summoning all Synods and Diocesan Conferences; and of presiding therein, either in person or by such deputy as he may lawfully appoint.
VIII Every Bishop shall be faithful in admitting persons into Holy Orders and in celebrating the rite of Confirmation as often and in as many places as shall be convenient, and shall provide, as much as in him lies, that in every place within his diocese, there shall be sufficient Priests to Minister the Word and Sacraments to the people that are therein.
IX The authority and jurisdiction that the Bishop possesses within his Diocese are constitutional:
- (a) in being exercised under the Canons of the Diocese, of the Province and of General Synod, and
- (b) in being shared with clergy and laity elected to Synod and to serve on its Board and Committees.
- (c) In accordance with the principle of the collegiality of Bishops in maintaining a close relationship with the Metropolitan and the fellow Bishops in the Province, and with the Primate and Canadian House of Bishops, in consultation with them, on important matters of Faith and Order.
X (a) There is inherent in the Office of Bishop, as Father in God and Chief Pastor, the duty to maintain the Discipline of Christ, to hear confession, to offer advice and correction; to receive complains or charges under the Canon Law or the Moral Law.
- (b) The Bishops shall follow a course, if possible, that will avoid all notoriety, and public scandal. It lies entirely in his discretion as to whether he will permit a complainant to proceed to formal litigation in the Bishop's Court.
- (c) If a complainant is not satisfied with the Bishop's refusal to permit ecclesiastical litigation, he may carry the case to the Metropolitan.
- (d) If the Bishop has reason to believe that a Canon or the Moral Law is being infringed and no person has come forward to lay a complaint, he may direct some person to make an enquiry, and if circumstances justify it, to lay a complaint.
- (e) The Bishop may hear the case himself; he may associate others with him; he may ask some person to hear it for him. However, in no case shall a verdict be rendered but in the name of the Bishop, and by the Bishop himself. Where the verdict implies some penalty, like suspension, or deprivation, the bishop shall first consult with his Chancellor before rendering the verdict.
XI (a) According to the vows taken at his Ordination, the Diocesan Bishop must devote himself to the work of the Church of God in the Diocese. Only under the most exceptional circumstances, and on a temporary basis, may be accept any other appointment with remuneration, and that with the consent of his own Executive and the Metropolitan. This consent may be recalled by either party at any time, provided due notice is given.
- (b) Because the Diocesan Bishop may not hold two positions, (and be a "Pluralist") it is the duty of his Diocese to provide him with a Stipend and Allowances sufficient to keep him free from any financial anxiety and embarrassment.
- (c) It is the duty of the Metropolitan to make an enquiry periodically, either himself, or with the help of a Committee of the Provincial Synod, to satisfy himself that the provisions of this clause are being met in the dioceses under his jurisdiction.
XII (a) The Anglican Church of Canada recognizes no distinction between the status of Bishops that serve in dioceses receiving Grants-in-aid from General Synod, and those who do not.
- (b) The fact that part of the income of the Episcopal Fund of any diocese is derived from sources outside the Diocese does not impair the authority of the Bishop and Synod of that Diocese.
- (c) The vows of obedience which a Bishop takes at his Consecration are incompatible with any special agreements or special work that impair the integrity of the Bishop's relationship with his own Synod, the Provincial Synod and the General Synod.
XIII (a) If a Diocesan Bishop desires Episcopal Assistance and his Synod consents, and makes sufficient financial provision for one, the matter shall be laid before the Metropolitan who, in accordance with Provincial Canons, shall obtain and give the consent of the Provincial Authority to the holding of the election.
- (b) While the Provincial Authority may give or deny its consent to the election of an Assistant Bishop, it lies with the Diocesan Authority, the Bishop and his Executive, to determine the Title and Work of Assistant Bishop to be elected. This shall be done, and properly recorded in the minutes of the Executive Committee of the Diocese before the election, and announced publicly at the Elective Synod. When a person is elected Assistant Bishop, he shall be informed of the particular terms of his appointment. If he accepts the Election, it is understood that he also accepts the terms of the appointment.
- (c) These terms may thereafter be changed only with the consent of the Diocesan with his Executive, and of the Assistant Bishop himself.
- (d) If an Assistant Bishops is elected, and the Diocese has not laid down beforehand the terms of his appointment, it is understood that his position in the diocese is that of a Suffragan Bishop without Title and without a defined Jurisdiction.
- (e) The expression "terms of the appointment" is to be taken to mean:
-- (i) Status or Title of the assistant Bishop, whether Coadjutor, or Suffragan;
-- (ii) Whether responsibility for a territorial area is assigned or not, or responsibility for certain kinds or areas of work;
-- (iii) Place of residence;
-- (iv) Stipend and allowances that are to be paid at the start, on the understanding that they will be reviewed by the Executive of the Diocese and increased periodically thereafter.
XIV (a) If a Diocese requires Episcopal Assistance, but yet is unable to elect or to obtain the services of the person or persons elected, it is permissible for the Diocese to ask the Metropolitan, with or without the aid of the Provincial House of Bishops or Provincial Council, to appoint a person as its Assistant Bishop.
- (b) In the event that a Diocese assigns a power to appoint, it assigns also its power to define the terms of the appointment. Any subsequent change in the terms of the appointment, or in the status of the Assistant Bishop, require the concurrence of the Diocesan Bishop, his Executive, the Assistant Bishop himself, and of the Metropolitan.
XV STATUS AND TITLE OF ASSISTANT BISHOPS: THE COADJUTOR
- (a) The Bishop Coadjutor is an Assistant Bishop who has been already designated as the successor to the Diocesan. If, however, he has already passed the ago of 70 years when the Diocesan retires, he has become ineligible for election as Diocesan.
- (b) Since the Coadjutor is elected with right to succession, it is understood that he will be given the opportunity of coming to know the Diocese, its history and traditions, its Parishes and activities. The Coadjutor serves without restriction as to Title, or Jurisdiction in area or type of work.
- (c) His Title is. "The Coadjutor Bishop of .... (name of Diocese)".
- (d) In the exercise of the Episcopal office, he holds Confirmations, dedications and consecrations, and makes visitations, in his own right, but in consultation with the Diocesan. He ordains, makes appointments of Clergy to parishes, receives their resignations, and convenes meetings of the clergy or of the Synod and its Executive only on the express authority of the Diocesan.
- (e) In the absence of the Bishop, unless Diocesan Canons give other directions, he shall preside at Synods and meetings of the Executive Committee.
- (f) The Coadjutor ranks next in seniority to the Diocesan Bishop. He takes precedence to the Suffragan with Title at services held within the jurisdiction of the Suffragan, only if he is present as the Deputy of the Diocesan himself.
- (g) It is permissible for the Diocesan, with the consent of his Synod or Executive to confer one other remunerative appointment on the Coadjutor, provided that the appointment shall not make it impossible for the Coadjutor to exercise his office throughout the Diocese.
XVI STATUS AND TITLE OF ASSISTANT BISHOPS: THE SUFFRAGANS, WITH OR WITHOUT SPECIAL TITLE
- (a) Among Suffragan Bishops there are to be distinguished --
-- (i) those that bear a special Title, other than that of the Diocese, and
-- (ii) those that bear the Title of the diocese, and are known as the "Suffragan Bishop of .... (name of the Diocese)".
- (b) The Special Title indicates a special responsibility for the Parishes and Clergy of a certain part of the Diocese. This Special responsibility does not impair the authority of the Diocesan in respect to that part of his Diocese, nor on the other hand, does it restrict the Suffragan in the exercise of his office to one part of the Diocese only. The Suffragan with Title is available for duty throughout the Diocese at the direction of the Diocesan, but it will be expected that Confirmations, dedications, consecrations, the holding of retreats for and visitations of the Clergy within his jurisdiction will be left largely in his hands.
- (c) Suffragan Bishops with Title are not required to resign when the Diocesan retires or deceases.
- (d) The absence of a Special Title indicates that the Suffragan Bishop is more directly and closely assigned to the Diocesan for duty anywhere in the diocese.
- (e) In distinction to the Suffragan with Title, whose special attachment is territorial, the Suffragan without Title has an attachment that is more personal, an attachment to the Diocesan for work anywhere in the Diocese.
- (f) Suffragan Bishops do not succeed the Diocesan by right, but they may be elected to succeed, provided that they have not already reached the age of 70 years.
- (g) It is permissible for the Diocesan, with the consent of his Synod or Executive to confer one other remunerative appointment on the Suffragan Bishop.
XVII RESIGNATIONS ON ACCOUNT OF AGE
- (a) All Bishops shall submit their resignation to the Metropolitan when they attain the age of 70 years. It shall be in the discretion of the Metropolitan, with the agreement of the Bishop concerned, to defer acceptance of the resignation for a period of up to two years.
- (b) Resignation by Metropolitans of both their Diocesan and Provincial administration shall be submitted to the Provincial House of Bishops, and shall be governed by the same regulations.
- (c) Resignation by the Primate of his Primatial Office shall be submitted to the Canadian House of Bishops, and shall be governed by the same regulations.
XVIII All Bishops, both Diocesan and Assistant, are required to fullfill the law of Residence by spending at least 9 months of each calendar year within the limits of their Diocese. They shall not so arrange their Leaves of Absence in such a way, at the end of one year and the beginning of the next that they are absent from their diocese for more than three months at a time. If the circumstances are exceptional, and the Executive of the Diocese consents, the Metropolitan may extend the Leave of Absence beyond three months.
XIX (a) All Bishops shall be entitled to six months' Leave of Absence from their Diocese with full stipend and allowances on the completion of six years of service, and thereafter six months for every six years completed.
- (b) The Leave of Absence shall not be cumulative from one six year period to the next.
- (c) Any Bishop taking Leave of Absence, shall report to his Metropolitan on the measures he is taking for his Ministry and Administration during his absence. The Metropolitan shall satisfy himself that the measures are sufficient, and shall take any necessary steps to ensure that the measures agreed to are being duly maintained by those who have accepted the responsibilities.
- (d) If a Bishop is asked to undertake some special work for the Church that requires his absence from his Diocese for a period in excess of the normal annual Leave of Absence, and the Synod or the Executive of his Diocese consents to his acceptance of this work, it shall lie with the Metropolitan and his House of Bishops to take the matter under review. They shall satisfy themselves that the Diocese in question is provided with sufficient Episcopal oversight. They shall determine how the Law that prohibits Diocesans from holding two positions and drawing two stipends (Pluralism) is to be applied to the case.
They shall consider no Diocese is due to honour the government of a Bishop whom they have not freely elected, either as the Diocesan or his Assistant Bishop, excepting in an emergency and on a temporary basis.
If they are satisfied on these and other such points, the Metropolitan and House of Bishops may grant Leave of Absence to a diocesan for a period up to 5 years, on the conditions agreed to between the Diocesan and the Provincial House of Bishops, which shall be recorded in the minutes of that House.
Such an agreement may be revised from time to time with the consent of the Metropolitan and his House of Bishops, the Diocesan and the Executive of the Diocese.
The Leave of Absence shall not be renewed after its expiry, at the end of 5 years or earlier, excepting with the consent of the Synod of the Diocese and the recommendation of the Provincial House of Bishops made to and accepted by the Canadian House of Bishops.
XX (a) Any Diocesan Bishop who has reached the age of 68 years and is within two years of his retirement, may give notice of his retirement to the Metropolitan and to the Synod or Executive of his Diocese, and require that he be provided with Episcopal Assistance. The Bishop elected on the grounds of "impending retirement" shall be a Coadjutor with right to succeed, provided that there be no Coadjutor to the Diocesan already.
- (b) If a Diocese requires Episcopal Assistance on the grounds of the disability or infirmity of the Diocesan, or of the growth of the work beyond his powers, the initiative in seeking Assistance shall lie (a) with the Diocesan with the consent of his Synod, or in the event of the Bishop's unwillingness or inability to act, (b) with the Executive Committee of the Diocese in consultation with the Chancellor, or in the failure of both to act, (c) with the Metropolitan.
- (c) If a Bishop requires Episcopal Assistance, and his Synod or Executive feels unable to make sufficient financial provision, the Metropolitan shall meet the Executive to review the matter. If he deems it wise, an appeal shall be sent forward to the Primate and General Synod for a Grant sufficient for the need.
- (d) No Grant shall be made by General Synod to a Diocese for Episcopal Assistance except on the conclusion of an agreement between the General Synod and the Diocese in which is specified the amount of the Grant, the status, title, work, place of residence and jurisdiction of the Bishop to be elected, and the duration of the agreement.
(e) Such an agreement shall have force only during the episcopate of the Diocesan Bishop, who is partner to it. The Grant may be continued only if his successor applies for it, and makes a similar agreement with General Synod. The Agreement should provide for periodic review and for the change of its terms, with the consent of both parties.
Section I was given general approval
Section II was given general approval
Section III was referred back to the committee for further consideration in the light of discussion
Section IV was approved
Section V was given general approval
Section VI to be combined with Section VII
Section VII approved in substance
Section VIII approved
Section IX - XI referred back to Committee with suggestions.
Section XII approved
Section XIII referred with suggestions to committee
Regrets with good wishes were received from the Bishop of James' Bay (Clarke), the Bishop of Toronto (Wilkinson), Bishop Sovereign (senior bishop in years of consecration in the Canadian Church), Bishop Ragg, Bishop Robinson and Bishop Waterman.
(iii) Resignation of Bishop Coleman
The Primate stated that Bishop Coleman has been obliged to submit his resignation from his diocese as of the end of August  because of deterioration in his health. Archbishop Sexton reported that Bishop Coleman has been ordered by his medical advisors to give up work for at least a year. Bishop Coleman possesses great gifts and the Metropolitan said he had accepted his resignation with deep regret. The Primate requested the support of every consideration and prayer on his behalf that he may be able in a year's time to enter again into the full exercise of his episcopal ministry.
The status of Bishop Coleman for the immediate future is a Provincial matter though the Primate felt that he should be considered as "on leave of absence". It was suggested that the Metropolitan of British Columbia should set up a small committee to consider the canonical relationship to the Canadian episcopate of a bishop who resigns his office, this not being clearly defined by the present canons. The suggestion was received favourably without formal action.
The Primate expressed pleasure at the presence of Bishop Dean, Executive Officer of the Anglican Communion, who had come to attend the meetings of the House and General Synod; also, Bishop Greenwood who has returned to take over episcopal duties in the Diocese of Cariboo during Bishop Dean's absence, was warmly welcomed.
That a message of good wishes be sent to all members of the House who are not in attendance.
In addition to those already mentioned this was to include Archbishop Barfoot, Archbishop Dixon, Archbishop Carrington and Bishop Jefferson.
The revised Statement to the Church was distributed.
Proposal: That the Statement to the Church from the Council of General Synod, Document #038-02-07-11 Revised, be approved. APPROVED BY CONSENSUS
It was agreed that a formal motion was required; therefore, it was
That the Statement to the Church from the Council of General Synod, Document #038-02-07-11 Revised, be approved. CARRIED UNANIMOUSLY #06-11-07
The Statement to the Church is attached as Appendix A.
Bishop Colin Johnson rose on a Point of Order to ask when the statement would be made public. Response: The statement had been sent immediately on passing to the House of Bishops and would be posted on the Anglican Church of Canada’s website as part of the CoGS highlights on Saturday morning.
A Statement to the Church from the Council of General Synod
[Mississauga, Ontario] November 17, 2007 -- The Council of General Synod approved the following statement unanimously.
The Council of General Synod, meeting in Mississauga, Ont., from Nov. 16 to 18 2007, has received with concern the news that Bishop Donald Harvey, has voluntarily relinquished, effective immediately, the exercise of ordained ministry in the Anglican Church of Canada, and intends to be received into the Province of the Southern Cone in South America. Bishop Harvey, retired Bishop of Eastern Newfoundland and Labrador has been a valued member of our church, and his decision is a source of sadness.
The Anglican Church of Canada welcomes and respects freedom of individual conscience and the theological convictions of its diverse membership. Our General Synods have consistently sought to honour every voice as we work patiently through contentious and difficult issues before our church. Our bishops have made adequate and appropriate provision for the pastoral care and episcopal support of all Canadian Anglicans. We value and respect the diversity of the worldwide Anglican Communion and have expressed our commitment to its ongoing life, even as we also ask for respect and understanding of our own.
To this end we wish to make clear that interventions in the life of our church such as ordinations or other Episcopal acts by any other jurisdictions, are inappropriate and unwelcome. In particular, we cannot recognize the legitimacy of recent actions by the Province of the Southern Cone in purporting to extend its jurisdiction beyond its own borders. We call upon the Archbishop of Canterbury to make clear that such actions are not a valid expression of Anglicanism and are in contravention of the ancient and continuing traditions of the Church. They aggravate the current tensions in the Anglican Communion.
The Gospel of Jesus Christ is good news for the world, and our primary task as Christians is to make this Gospel known through action and word. We strongly support our Primate's view that the Church in Canada and throughout the world should make Christ and His mission its central focus. We therefore call upon all our members, lay and ordained, to commit themselves to this priority, and to respect the structures and authority of the Church.
We ask your prayers for our continued fellowship in the Spirit and our unity in the bond of peace.
The Archbishop of Algoma, on behalf of his Committee, presented suggested revisions to the proposed Canon on Bishops as recorded in the 1965 Minutes. The House spent the rest of the second session on the proposed canon, going through section by section in detail. Following adjournment the subject was taken up again in the third session. At the conclusion of which session, it was moved and carried:
"That further consideration of the proposed Canon on Bishops be now deferred to the 1967 meeting of the House and that Bishops be advised to submit to the appropriate sub-committee any suggestions or comments they may have on the Canon as printed in the Minutes of the 1965 meeting."
It was agreed that the numerous amendments to the report on the proposed Canon should be submitted by the Secretaries to the Committee on Bishops for inclusion in the next report to be submitted to the House, without being included in the Minutes of this meeting.